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Global Warming, a Danger to the Earth:
An Annotated Bibliography
Andrew Bryant
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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"CAFE Saves More Oil Than We Import From the Persian Gulf." Online posting. Sierra Club-CAFÉ. 19 Feb. 2003 . The article states that the greatest single step America can take in stopping global warming is to adopt more fuel-efficient vehicles. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (C.A.F.E.) act requires all new cars to get at least 27.5 miles per gallon, and light trucks to average 20.7 mpg. Cars and light trucks consume 40% of American oil and emit 20% of the nation's carbon dioxide. Furthermore, the average sports utility vehicle gives off about 100 tons of carbon dioxide in its lifetime. The new gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle will average 45 miles per gallon, thereby nearly doubling fuel efficiency in the average car. There are many other ideas for cutting gas consumption, for example: aerodynamic designs; lighter materials; and front-wheel-drive transmissions. This is an outstanding article because it offers a practical and real solution to the global warming problem.

Davis, Lee. Environmental Disasters: A Chronicle of Individual, Industrial, and Governmental Carelessness. New York: Facts on File, 1998. 126-128. The article points out that as governments of the world continue to overlook the global warming problem, the situation continues to get worse. The effects of global warming will have dire consequences such as: hurricanes; floods; and intense heat. Consequences of global warming are already being felt across the globe. For example, more than 800 recently died in a heat wave that burned through the Midwest. They are feeling the heat overseas as well being that England just experienced its hottest summer in over 200 years. Furthermore, if global warming continues, the polar ice caps will melt and raise sea levels up by about six feet. This would be disastrous to low elevation countries and pacific islands. This is a good article because it offers everything one would want to know about global warming without quoting any scientific jargon.

Forest, Chris E., Peter H. Stone, and Henry D. Jacoby. "Human Influence on Climate." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 16.4 (2002): 47-51. The article states that humans are not necessarily to blame for the climate change. The author uses the metaphor of a man saying he has gained weight because he has eaten too much. The writer states that eating to much is a faulty conclusion because four elements are involved in weight gain: the potential for error in measuring it; natural changes in body weight; an understanding of bodily functions; and a record of food intake. The author then parallels this example to the conclusion that humans are responsible for global warming. He claims that people do not possess the means to understand the four factors that have lead to the conclusion of human involvement in global warming. Humans do not have the technology to fully measure the atmosphere, nor the ability to eliminate the margin of error. People also lack a full understanding of nature and certainly do not have a complete record of the earth's climate. This is a good article in the way that it states that humans might have contributed to global warming, but it would be premature to jump to that conclusion at this time.

Hosansky, David. The Environment A to Z. Washington: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 2001. 106-10. The author states that if global warming is allowed to continue, it could have severe environmental effects. There are several disasters that could be triggered by global warming: rising sea levels; disease outbreaks; and severe weather systems. To help stem the effects of global warming, instead of merely slowing it down, many politicians are looking to the government to create new technology that will reduce carbon dioxide levels completely. Several environmentalists believe that the United States should take care of the global warming problem for two reasons: because it is the only country with the resources to take care of it; and the United States is responsible for one-fifth of the worlds greenhouse gasses. This is a truly great article because it offers facts that even a layman can understand, as well as giving accurate statistics on the problem.

"Imagine no restrictions on fossil-fuel usage and no global warming!" Journal of Environmental Health 65.4 (2002): 32-33. Researchers are studying a method of extracting carbon dioxide directly from the air, which would allow continued use of fossil fuels without contributing to global climate warming. The method involves removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which would reduce the amount of greenhouses gasses. Additionally, the carbon dioxide that has been removed and stored can be converted into fuel. Because this process uses existing air, it does not need to be placed in any specific location, such as hot spots of carbon dioxide. The predicted cost of this procedure is equal to about twenty cents per gallon of gas, so it is very economically viable. This is a good article because not only does it offer prevention of further warming, it provides a means to repair the damage that has already been done by global warming. However, this is only a study, so there is no proof as of yet that it will solve the problem of global warming.

Jennings, Lane. "Climate Change: What we can do." The Futurist 36.1 (2002). The article states that there are several things people can do to in order to help solve the current global warming crisis. Individuals can help by flying and driving less, as well as increasing their amount of biking and telecommuting. One can also help by eating less beef and instead embracing a more vegetarian lifestyle. Groups of people can contribute by organizing such events as a "Car Free Sunday." Businesses can help by installing environmental friendly lights, insulating roofs and windows, and farming in a more sustainable fashion. Nations can donate to the solution by funding mass transit, promoting solar power, and letting non-polluting energy sources compete fairly in the stock market. None of these individual ideas can solve the global warming crises, but if implemented collectively on a wide scale program they will have a positive influence on the environment. This is a good article because it offers simple, easy to follow instructions for each level of society.

"State Impacts - Oklahoma." Online Posting. 8 Oct. 2002. EPA: Global Warming: Impacts. 18 Feb. 2003 http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ImpactsStateImpactsOK.html. The article states that Oklahoma climate has potential to change even more. In the last century the average temperature in Stillwater, Oklahoma has increased .6 degrees. Furthermore, precipitation in Oklahoma has increased by 20% in many parts of the state. Higher temperatures have increased the number of heat-related deaths, especially for single elderly people. With rising temperatures the rivers in eastern Oklahoma are likely to dry up, which will deplete reservoirs and add mineral deposits to the remaining waterways. Consequently, the lakes and ponds will disappear, but the entire state of Oklahoma will turn into a floodplain. The forests are at risk as well because the warmer weather leads to a greater risk of forest fires. Global warming threatens the Midwest as much or more that it does the rest of the world. This is a good article because it applies directly to the current conditions of Oklahoma.

"The Melting Continent." Environment 44.4 (2002). A great ice shelf in Antarctica has collapsed due to warmer temperatures. The ice shelf is approximately 650 feet thick and has a surface area of 1,250 square miles, which is about the size of Rhode Island. The warmer temperatures in Antarctica are climbing due to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The Antarctic Peninsula has been warming 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit faster than the usual rate of global warming. As a result, five ice shelves have already begun to recede, forfeiting landmass to the ocean. Many scientists believe that rising temperatures are causing small ponds to form on the surface of the ice shelves. The water then journeys toward cracks in the ice, which deepen until the ice shelf eventually falls apart. This means that the Antarctic ice shelves are more susceptible to global warming than most other lands. This is an excellent article because it provides proof that global warming is providing a detrimental effect on nature.

Ulph, Alistair, and David Ulph. "Global Warming, Irreversibility and Learning." The Economic Journal 107.442 (1997): 636-50. The question addressed in this paper is what damages done to the earth affect the policies concerning the emissions of greenhouse gasses. One view, known as "learn-then-act," states that laws regarding gas emissions should be lifted so humanity can study and better understand damages done to the earth. The authors state that this is a dangerous theory as whatever damage done to the earth by global warming is most likely irreversible. They claim that this would be a very risky, as well as an unnecessary gamble. The article then provides very complex mathematical equations to prove its point. Overall, this article gives the scientific side of global warming's causes and consequences. This is an excellent article because it proves without a shadow of a doubt that global warming is real and is destroying the environment.

Vitousek, Peter. "Beyond Global Warming: Ecology and Global Change." Ecology 75.7 (Oct.1994): 1861-76. The article states that human actions are responsible for climatic consequences that are having effects on the Earth's ecosystems. Three causes are identified as the direct cause of global warming: escalating amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; changes in the biogeochemistry of the earth's nitrogen cycle; and the ongoing development of land. Due to the increase in nitrogen fertilizing, nitrogen levels in the atmosphere have skyrocketed. In fact, more nitrogen has been produced by humanity than by all natural pathways merged. The author establishes two major points: The global climate changes are affecting people now; and humans must be more certain in global issues. This is an excellent lecture as it covers the entire spectrum of the global warming issue.

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