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Forest Conservation, the Truth on Human Indignation:
An Annotated Bibliography
Agnes Opara
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Bawa, Kamaljit S.; Reinmar Seidler. "Natural Forest Management and Conservation of Biodiversity in Tropical Forests." Conservation Biology 12.1 (1998): 46-55. The United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization convey heavy concerns for the impeccable amount of trees destroyed each year for industrial, technological, and urbanized usage. The rate of deforestation has been increasing dramatically through the years and still continues to do so today. For instance, studies collected by the Food and Agricultural Organization show that in the decade of 1980-1990 the rate of deforestation was 0.8%. Presently deforestation has escalated to more than 4.2% annually. The increase of industrialization and population has surpassed the regeneration period of the land by almost a hundred fold. Still the extraction of natural vegetation continues to cause an increase in the number of conservational organizations like that of the National Forest Management (NFM). Many international groups have also joined the forces dedicated to protecting and salvaging what is left of forests across the world. The need for conservation is quite unprecedented and these issues are addressed with the utmost detail.

Chapin III, Stuart F.; Margaret S. Torn; Masaki Tateno. "Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability." The American Naturalist 148.6 (1996): 1016-37. Ecosystems are endowed with the natural ability to sustain themselves and overcome the harsh realities of degradation but the increasing modification of the earth's surface due to cultivation and urbanization have begun to affect the productivity of sustenance of the ecosystem. The depletion of organic matter in the soil and over grazing have helped to procure the eutrophication of surrounding lakes. The ecosystem has no time for replenishment of the basic resources to maintain life. Research is on the verge of coming up with an equal divide for the restitution of forests and other environmental surfaces. The policies developed by conservation organizations provide hope for the earth's ecosystem. The meticulousness with which these policies are implored further contributes to the need for conservatism in the world.

Clark, John G. "Economic Development vs. Sustainable Societies: Reflections on the Players in a Crucial Contest." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 26. (1995): 225-48. The UN Conference of 1992 on Environment and Development at Rio de Janeiro has adopted policies that will help the progression of sustainable development. Since the ecosystem is on high alert of degradation and extinction, the Government of the United States has begun to enact programs that will enlist the ideals of conservation and preservation. Humanitarians, Ecologists, and Conservationalists have gathered together to propose different areas and ideas of their own that would befit the forestation of the land. Recycling and alternative paper products have been presented as helpful conservation tactics for saving the trees and the ecosystem. The involvement of the U.S. government will provoke a greater population of our society to get involved with nature and hopefully restore it back to a healthier state. The invocation of government involvement substantiates the matter at hand and the requirement for maintenance of the ecosystem.

Jullien, Mathilde; Jean-Marc Thiollay. "Effects of Rainforest Disturbance and Fragmentation: Comparative Changes of the Raptor Community Along the Natural Human-Made Gradients in French Guiana (in Rainforest Fragments)." Journal of Biogeography 23.1 (1996): 7-25. The exposure of rain forests creates degradation, and fragmentation of plantations on vegetation once circulated by wild creatures. Amplification of cultivation enhances extinction and displacement of many of the wild creatures that lurked about the forest. Birds undergo an expansive trepidation and tribulation due to deforestation. Forest speciation is under grave risk of extermination if conservation of forestlands is not adhered to. The raptor diversity of French Guiana has fallen prey to the preditorialism of humankind. Morphological and behavioral adaptations to the new surroundings have been slow running. The composition of the bird population has decreased significantly and this is all a result of the disturbances of fragmentation. The presentation of the effects of deforestation contributes to the inexorable condition with which humans have placed the environment into.

Kellman, Martin; Rosanne Tackaberry; Lesley Rigg. "Structure and Function in Two Tropical Gallery Forest Communities: Implications for Forest Conservation in Fragmented Systems." Journal of Applied Ecology 35.2 (1998): 195-206. Human activity and industrialism has inflicted nature with a terribly drastic situation of corruption. Deforestation has left the future of forest restoration in grave danger. The importance of preservation has escalated to a higher level. The only way to induce a mass population into conservation is by informing one small community at a time of the effects of industrial waste on the great and natural vegetation surrounding the earth today. By instilling the ideals of preservation into a small community, mere word of mouth of this idea can transgress to millions of people through many nations. The hope of this fragmentation of community involvement brings forth a great aspiration of conservation for forests across these many nations. The ideas that are introduced for heightening the hope for restoration are affable but would take time and consistent effort if the goal for conservation across the nation is to be accomplished.

Lieth, Helmut; Lohmann, Martha, ed. Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems. Norwell: Klumer Academic Publishers, 1993. Forests are the basic stems of human life. Within one forest an entire ecosystem of various species exist. Forests support and sustain a wide range of diverse groups of organisms from the tiniest parasite to the biggest mammal. The land is important to these many organisms and these many organisms are a necessity to the daily lives of human's everyday. Some of these organisms are used to help the medical field like leeches that are used on patients who have lost their limbs. Many vaccines like those gathered from the venom of snakes that burrow about the forests will be extinguished due to human corruption and indignation. If the loss of forest vegetation continues, that will affect the human race deeply as is magnified repetitively.

Martin, Sam. "PaperChase." EcologyToday 15 February 2003. http://www.ecology.com. The consumption of paper in the United States alone is about 189 million pounds per year per entire population. The population of trees is quickly depleting due to the mass use of paper and other products produced from trees. Alternative products may be used in the place of trees such as agri-pulp (wheat, oat, barley) and hemp, which is a wood substitute, can easily be used and can help decrease and eventually cease the use of the use of trees all around the world. The importance of the conservation of trees is stressed, as well as the origin of the manipulation of trees into paper. Since 105AD, trees have been chopped down day after day and year after year and with the growing population and economy, the ratio of trees used per year is increasing. The information provided adequately preserves industrialization through with the suggestion of alternative wood products.

Sharitz, Rebecca M.; Lindsey Boring; David VanLear; John Pinder. "Integrating Ecological Concepts with Natural Resource Management of Southern Forests." Ecological Applications 2.3 (1992): 226-37. The U.S. Forest Service is working now to expand and enforce environmental awareness. The search for equilibrium between commercial development and resource management is on high alert. In taking care of the issue of conservation of natural forests, the maintenance of ecological values will be secured at least for the time being. The population of the Southern United States has increased most drastically and is sill at an all time high. The increase in population has further pressed the increase of industrialization and urbanization. Forest ecosystems are also depleting with the rising population. Over exploitation of the forest areas has resulted in the erosion of soil and the loss of fertility on the land. Agriculturally, the land is unable to produce goods making the expansion for more fertile lands required. These topographical expansions have and will cause more devastation to the land if not apprehended soon. More investigation is under way for commercial development and resource management but hope for finding a resolution through these mediums is definitively addressed as quite unstable.

Singh, Panjab; Pathak, P.S.; Roy, M.M., ed. Agro forestry Systems for Sustainable Land Use. Lebanon: Science Publishers, 1994. The effects of land degradation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological processes. The physical influence on the land is in reference to soil erosion and corrosion. The drainage facilities of many irrigation systems are to blame for this because of excessive runoff of wastes and water that cause the soil to be overly pliable. The chemical influence of land degradation is due to nutrient depletion and toxic air pollution that affects the pH of precipitation. Finally, the biological process that is in affect with over use of the land causing a reduction of organic matter of the soil which intern creates a decline in biomass of carbon needed for growth and nutrients. These processes can be altered and even changed if people would conserve and work to improve the land instead of degradation and destruction of the soil. Humans are the cause for the degradation of the land and the mere description of the causes for the corruption of the earth is identified.

Williams-Linera, Guadalupe. "Vegetation Structure and Environment Conditions of Forest Edges in Panama." Journal of Ecology 78.2 (1990): 356-73. Deforestation exposes the remaining soil to greater amounts of solar radiation and rainfall. According to a study taken in the Panama area, the clearing of trees decreases the amount of humidity in the forest causing a reverse reaction of increased air temperature and decreased transpiration rates. The soils become too soft and soon unable to withstand the weight of trees anymore. Some of the more dramatic changes affecting the areas of deforestation are the floristic structures. Leaf masses have doubled and the stem density of trees and saplings has decreased tremendously. The distortion of abiotic composition has also affected the mortality of many of the animals that inhabited the forest area. With the increase of solar radiation due to the clearing of land, many insects, animals, and helpful parasitic creatures have perished from decrease in humidity that they once thrived upon. Tree preservation is an absolute must and if nothing is done soon then the ecosystem will suffer most profoundly as represented through the description of the affects of deforestation.

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