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Tree Conservation:
An In Depth Analysis
Agnes Opara
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Forestation is very important to the world around us. Mere respiration of all living things depends on natural vegetation. The ecosystem thrives on the shadowy forests and the food and shelter that it provides. Soil relies on the nutrients and shade that the trees provide. Without these, soil can become pliable and begin to deteriorate. Forests confine animals of all sorts, protecting humans from dangerous mammals and reptiles that would otherwise over-crowd urban areas. Many trees produce fruit and many of the herbal medicines that assist the medical practice today. Budding flowers from trees, and parasitic creatures like leeches are also used in medicinal applications. This purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of deforestation and pollution. In this essay, there will be listing of probable solutions to the deprecation of ecological resources. The one problem that remains unresolved is how and which solution is best for the ecological problems that manifest within many nations. It is because of these troubles that scientists remain divided and utterly at odds for finding an exact resolution for the ecosystem.

Trees and other natural vegetation are what help to sustain all the creatures that dwell in this nation. Conservationalists and environmentalists are studying and presenting more and more facts to back up the issue at hand on the effects of deforestation. The U.S government has even decreed in new legislation that change must take place soon to salvage and reconstruct what is left of the ecosystem. Many politicians, mainly governors, are pushing to invoke environmental awareness in their communities. Pollution is one factor that has been widely debated because of the damage to the ozone layer. At present the problem with the ozone layer has caused a dangerously high count of skin cancer in Australia alone (CNN). The environment is in dire need of restoration. If the U.S. government is this concerned on this matter, know that there is something more to this than what meets the eye. If trees are allowed to deteriorate and decompose under the conditions that humans have left them in, all living creatures will eventually become endangered species. The land is under attack and has been since 105 AD according to Sam Martin, an editor for Ecology Today. His article explains the event that transformed nature forever, the manipulation of trees into paper. Many forests have been swept clean due to economic demand. With the increasing population, the expansion and increase for numerous products has escalated in astonishing amounts. Martin exclaims, " the world today consumes 300 million tons of paper each year" (2). If conservation were only implemented in equilibrium with economic demand, trees might have hope for rehabilitation. Alternative products are under suggestion in the conservation of trees according to John Clark, author of: "Economic Development vs. Sustainable Societies." He presented such products as agri-pulp and hemp, and the resource of recycling for possible establishment of preservation for reformation of the agricultural and tropical plains (226).

Clearing of trees exposes the soil to a decreased amount of humidity, and transpiration rates. An increase in air temperature has also been shown to be prevalent once the soil is uncovered. As a result of all this exposure, soil erosion and the abiotic composition become distorted. According to Guadalupe Williams-Linera, author of "Vegetation Structure and Environment Conditions of the Forest Edges in Panama," solar radiation takes effect on the already fledgling soil and insects and many parasitic creatures become victims under the new atmosphere (356). Panjab Singh, an author of Agro Forestry Systems for Sustainable Land Use, also alludes to the idea of chemical, biological, and physical degradation of the land due to deforestation (6). Singh and his colleagues explain that the soil is under obstruction do to nutrient depletion, toxic air pollution (which is what the soil is greatly exposed to once deforestation takes place). The pH of precipitation changes and the biomass of carbon decrease, which make reconstruction of nutrients for growth utterly infeasible (7). These problems of pH levels not only influence the soil but the creatures that inhabit the forests. The ecosystem of forests endures an expansive trepidation and tribulation due to deforestation. Speciation is under grave risk of complete extermination.
"Many are not well adapted for the new conditions," as Mathilde Jullien describes in the Journal of Biogeography (7). The amplification of cultivation enhances extinction and displacement of many of the creatures. The raptor diversity in French Guiana alone has fallen prey to the predators of humankind. Their morphological and behavioral adaptations are slow running and are declining everyday. There are a few countries already that are suffering from the over use of tree industrialism. Trees are used for stereo speakers, sole inserts of tennis shoes, home insulation, and electric plugs. Anything and everything involve trees in some way. There needs to be change and soon. Agri-pulp and the plant kenaf are great supplements. Why not use those products instead of ravaging and displacing millions of species that thrive on the land and supply the human race with needed nutrients?

The world is interconnected throughout every single, living creature. The ecosystem does not just hold studied mammals, it holds all creatures form all species concealed and discovered in scientific research. Helmut Lieth, the editor of, Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems, emphasizes his thought on forest life by saying, " Forests are the basic stems of human life"(5). Akira Miyawaki, one of the collaborators for this book, mentions that one supreme way for restoration of the natural forests would be to collect seedlings and seeds of climax species from the forests, harvest and raise them in a nursery and after adaptation is established, replant the young plants in designated sites (5). This solution has, so far been successful with the particular groups that were tested but some scientists feel skeptical has to how far this idea will go considering that the consummation of tree products is growing faster than trees can regrow everyday. Stuart Chapin III wrote in the, " Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability," that maintaining interactive controls in the ecosystem would provide a significant help for the sustaining of ecological health. In this program on interactive control, Chapin and his associates speak of degradation of the natural forests and the excessive deforestation that has capitulated the rehabilitation of vegetation in many nations. He explains that if laws and regulations are enacted upon those that gather tree products for the industries, the problems that engulf the ecosystem today will begin to diminish. Defending his idea on the sustainability of forestation and why it has a possibility to work, Chapin writes:
We consider spatial scales that are relevant to direct human management ( e.g., watersheds). Definitions of sustainability related to the long-term yield of commodities for human consumption ( e.g., sustainable agriculture or forestry; qtd. Gale and Cordray 1991; Goodland 1995) are less relevant to unmanaged ecosystems, although there is a continuum from natural to intensively managed ecosystems (1017).
Resolutions to the tribulations that creatures of the forest and the forest itself are going through, have stumped the minds of many scientists and government officials who wish to propose a definite solution for the reestablishing the stamina of the ever-depleting forests. Too many to mention have been presented forth as competent enough for rebuilding vegetation but each authority has their idea of what is best. In the end forestation is still fledgling and many creatures have become extinct. One solution that seems to be fairing well with the reconstruction of ecology, is the idea that Martin Kellman and his comrades came up with. Their proposal is, " preservation will have to take place in small community fragments" (195). In getting communities involved in the fight for preservation, many of the ideas for conservation can be implemented depending on the condition of the land in that area.

Rebecca Sharitz, an author of, " Integrating Ecological Concepts with Natural Resource Management of Southern Forests," also examines a very similar ideal to Kellman who authored the, "Structure and Function in Two Tropical Gallery Forest Communities." Both present the idea of community management and awareness of the situation of conservation. She mentions," Natural resource management must integrate commercial development and use of forest resources with the maintenance of ecological values" (226). An author by the name of Kamaljit S. Bawa also researched these same values and he explained them in further detail in, " Natural Forest Management and Conservation of Biodiversity in Tropical Forests". He and his colleagues believe in the idea of, "natural forest management for hope of making the tropical lands more profitable while maintaining biodiversity" (46). This idea is similar to earlier aspirations for consumption because it emphasizes the need for management and control over the amount of human involvement on land. Bawa takes one other step in his idea and that is to create equilibrium between agriculture and industrialism. Equilibrium would create a common ground for all to become more involved with the war on conservationalism. The community can still work with this project and still be able to gather resources needed for the growing population. The reactions accrued with the establishment of community involvement seem to be quite positive and accepted for the time being but there are still many people who search for better solutions for preservation and conservation of the ecological systems.

Works Cited

Bawa, Kamaljit S.; Reinmar Seidler. "Natural Forest Management and Conservation of Biodiversity in Tropical Forests." Conservation Biology 12.1 (1998): 46-55.

Chapin III, Stuart F.; Margaret S. Torn; Masaki Tateno. "Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability." The American Naturalist 148.6 (1996): 1016-37.

Clark, John G. "Economic Development vs. Sustainable Societies: Reflections on the Players in a Crucial Contest." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 26. (1995): 225-48.

Jullien, Mathilde; Jean-Marc Thiollay. "Effects of Rainforest Disturbance and Fragmentation:  Comparative Changes of the Raptor Community Along the Natural Human-Made Gradients in French Guiana (in Rainforest Fragments)." Journal of Biogeography 23.1 (1996): 7-25.

Kellman, Martin; Rosanne Tackaberry; Lesley Rigg. "Structure and Function in Two Tropical Gallery Forest Communities: Implications for Forest Conservation in Fragmented Systems." Journal of Applied Ecology 35.2 (1998): 195-206.

Lieth, Helmut; Lohmann, Martha, ed. Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems. Norwell: Klumer Academic Publishers, 1993.

Martin, Sam." Paper Chase." Ecology Today (2003).

Sharitz, Rebecca M.; Lindsey Boring; David VanLear; John Pinder. "Integrating Ecological Concepts with Natural Resource Management of Southern Forests." Ecological Applications 2.3 (1992): 226-37.

Singh, Panjab; Pathak, P.S.; Roy, M.M., ed. Agro forestry Systems for Sustainable Land Use. Lebanon: Science Publishers, 1994.

Williams-Linera, Guadalupe. "Vegetation Structure and Environment Conditions of Forest Edges in Panama." Journal of Ecology 78.2 (1990): 356-73.

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