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An Annotated Bibliography
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Avitabile, Louis and Brian H. Kleiner. "New Developments Concerning Discrimination
Against the American Indians." International Journal of Sociology and Social
Policy 21(2001): 74-82. Discrimination of one race by another has always been
present in this world and also in this country, however, some races are
discriminated against more than others. Races like the American Indian, for
example, have been discriminated against more than the Anglo-American.
However, although discrimination still takes place, the Native people have
been overcoming it and getting bills passed in Congress that will help put an end
to the discrimination against them. Through "self-determination" the Indians have
formed the National Congress of American Indians and petitions have been sent
to Congress to force the removal of stereotypical names, such as "Red Skins,"
among others, from team logos, license plates and other items. Native Americans, or American Indians, have reclaimed their right to not be discriminated against in
any way, politically, culturally, and socio-economically. This article brings attention to Native American discrimination and explains their attempts to end it.
Edmunds, R. David. "Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-
1995." The American Historical Review 100.2 (1995): 717-740. Before
the twentieth century, Native American history and cultural understanding had not been given much attention by anyone. This lack of interest was largely due to the
idea that Native American culture was quickly descending into nothingness and
would soon be obliterated into nonexistence. However, this belief was soon
proven to be entirely wrong. While some native cultures and traditions have been
lost forever, the twentieth century saw the reemergence of an interest in Native
American History and of Pre-Columbian History. In turn this interest in Native
American and Pre-Columbian History has sparked yet another resurgence, a
resurgence of pride. This new found pride is clearly seen in their powwows, arts, music, and other forms of expression. Overall, this article clearly shows a reclaiming of cultural identity among Native American peoples.
Hanson, Jeffrey R. "Ethnicity and the Looking Glass: The Dialectics of National Indian
Identity." American Indian Quarterly 21 (1997): 195-207. Through the
years, Native Americans have developed several national organizations in order
to preserve their ethnic identity. Each organization, however took a different
approach. Formed in 1911, the Society of American Indians (SAI) believed
Indians should unite by race, not by tribe, and assimilate into Euro-American
culture, retaining only those customs which promoted progress towards
civilization. The platform of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflected tribal sovereignty and sought legislature reforms at the national level which would help their people. In the 1960s the National Indian Youth Council (NIYC) and the American Indian Movement (AIM) took aggressive actions to preserve Indian identity and rights. Assimilation was replaced with traditional tribal customs and values. Though their approaches differed the goal of each national organization sought to preserve Indian ethnic identity through their history, blood lines, and tribal traditions. This is an excellent article explaining the platforms of Indian organizations.
Hoxie, Fredrick E. "Exploring a Cultural Borderland: Native American Journeys of
Discovery in the Early Twentieth Century." Journal of American History 79.3
(1992): 969-995. As the white American's belief in Manifest Destiny
rose and expansion pushed forward, Native American peoples were forced off
of their homelands and to abandon the old ways. However, as this "white"
expansion took place, some Native Americans began to use white ways to their
advantage. With their new knowledge of white ways and of the English language,
Native Americans expressed their culture, beliefs, folklore, and art to the
non-Indian community. Through this expression, Native Americans regained
respect and notoriety and the interest of the non-Indian public. Through their
determination not to fade away and simply melt into white society, their culture,
traditions, folklore, art, and beliefs have survived and will continue to survive.
This is a well written article explaining how Native American's were forced by the United States Government to give up their ways and beliefs and clearly shows the revival of the very culture it tried to eradicate.
McLuhan, T.C. Touch the Earth. New York: Pocket Books, 1971. Native Americans have been desperately trying to grasp on to their culture, religion, and lands since the
time that Europeans landed in the Americas. The Europeans have, in the recent centuries, been the driving force for the assimilation of Native Americans into white culture and the destruction of the Native American culture. This attitude towards the Native American culture nearly succeeded in destroying it entirely.
However, the Native Americans have proven to be resilient and determined to keep their culture alive. Through the quotes and letters written by Native Americans, the author has shown this determination to keep their culture alive.
This book is an exceptional collection of quotes and writings by Native Americans and it presents history through the Native American's point of view.
Robotham, Tom. Native Americans in Early Photographs. North Dighton, MA: World Publications Group, Inc, 1994. After years of trying to assimilate Native Americans into white culture, Americans in the early nineteenth century introduced a method to preserve a culture they could not understand. As traditional American Indian cultures began to rapidly fade, an increased interest in Indian ways emerged. Artists and early photographers traveled throughout the United States to capture in their works the vanishing culture, traditions, and homelands of Native Americans. These works of art depict the beauty of Indian culture as well as the sadness of a captured people. In this book, the author articulately explains the plight of Native Americans and documents various attempts of artists who cared enough to preserve Indian history. The author has also selected from various artists many works of art capable of illustrating without words the joy and sadness of Indian life.
Sanchez, Victoria E. "Intertribal Dance and Cross Cultural Communication: Traditional
Powwows in Ohio." Communication Studies 52.1 (2001): 51-69. Powwows are
important Native American traditions and offer excellent opportunities for
non-Indians to learn about Native American culture. With the resurgence of the
Native American's interest in preserving their culture and traditions, powwows
emerged as a means for different tribes to express their tribal uniqueness while
joining together in celebration. The majority of the dance is intertribal and
represents a form of communication between the tribes. Native Americans also
use the powwows as a method of communication and a chance to share valuable
information with the general public. In this article a vast amount of
information can be learned about contemporary Indians as well as their past
values and traditions.
Trachtenberg, Alan. "Dreaming Indian." Raritan 22.1 (2002): 58-79. The Indian
has long been one of the many symbols of America, so it should not surprising that many non-Indian people dream of being Indian. However, this dream of being
Indian has, in the past decades, been fading, disappearing before the world. There were many reasons for this disappearance, however the most prevalent reason was forcing the Indians to become the white man’s Indian -to give up their culture. Therefore, the common belief existed that in order to save the Indian was to "kill the Indian" and make them white. The so called "Friends of the Indian" were trying to destroy Indian culture, the very thing that gave the Indians their uniqueness; their culture, their traditions, and their languages. The Indian is part of what makes America what it is and was, and this article articulates that truth.
United States Senate. "To Protect Native American Cultures and to Guarantee the Free
Exercise of Religion by Native Americans." 12 September 1994.
OSU University Microfilms (1994): fiche CIS 94 S413-16 Discrimination of the American Indian has been a part of American history for over 500 years. In an effort to assimilate Indian tribes into civilized America, the Indians were denied their lands, culture, and religion. Realizing, however, that Native American sacred sites, their culture, and their religion are all intertwined, the Federal Government is urging the passage of Bill S. 2269. This bill is designed to protect Native American cultures and their freedom of religion. Sacred lands will be protected and access will be granted to these sites. The resources needed, such as Eagle feathers and peyote, to practice cultural and religious ceremonies will be permissible to use. Every step possible will be taken by the Federal Government to insure that Native Americans will be able to practice and preserve their religious and cultural heritage. This article is a well written guide for understanding Bill S. 2269.
Weaver, Hilary N. "Indigenous Identity." American Indian Quarterly 25 (2001):
240-255. There are many different ways to determine identity, but which way is
the right way to determine if someone is or is not Indian? For some tribal
enrollment is enough to prove indigenous identity, for others it is knowledge of
a Native language or traditions, for still others it is defiance against white ways.
However, for the non-Indian, Indian identity is usually based on a stereotype.
These stereotypes are based on romanticized images of Indians in movies,
advertisements, books, or other forms media. The government has also tried to
define Indian identity people who are "members of domestic, dependent nations."
This article clearly explains that identity is proven differently for all people whether it be by enrollment or another form of proof, there is neither a right way nor a wrong way to prove identity.
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