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Human Cloning:
An Annotated Bibliography
Khanh M. Ensign
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Breitowitz, Yitzchok. "What's So Bad About Human Cloning?" Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12.4 (2002): 325-41. The author discusses some judaic perspectives on the issue of human cloning. Although there appears a consensus that human cloning is immoral and should be banned, however, from a jewish perspective, reproductive cloning has many positive benefits. Some of the issues the author discusses are of genetic diversity, the arrogance of immortality, impact on relationships, psychological burdens, quality control, and justice and governance. The author concludes the discussion that in regards to reproductive cloning, the notion of singularity of the individual cutting two ways. With this big dilemma, it is important to try to think prospectively about the issues raised by cloning, so that society will not be ill prepared when this technology arrives. This article points out many positive benefits of reproductive cloning. People interested in the judaic perspective on human cloning would find this article useful.

Brock, Dan W. "Human Cloning and Our Sense of Self." Science 296.5566 (2002): 314-16. The author formulates and responds to three arguments concerning human reproductive cloning's potential to undermine sense of identity. The three arguments presented are a clone's freedom or autonomy to construct his or her own life would be undermined by the presence of an earlier twin, cloning would undermine the value or worth of human beings, and that cloning would undermine our genetic uniqueness, not our full individuality. Although there is the possibility of being able to clone human beings due to advances in genetic science and technology, whether that technology will be safe, effective, and legally permitted is uncertain. The arguments presented in this article are solid. People requiring support information on this subject would find it useful.

Burley, Justine, and John Harris. "Human cloning and child welfare." Journal of Medical Ethics 25.2 (1999): 108-13. This article discusses objections to human cloning in reference to child welfare. The objections discussed are that clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them, clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors, and clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger. The authors further discuss that the child welfare objections presented do not necessarily supply compelling arguments to ban human reproductive cloning rather it is none the less permissible so long as the objections discussed do not blight the existence of the cloned child. This article points out several potential harms that clones could suffer. People interested in the possible objections to cloning in regards to child welfare or individuals requiring supporting information on this subject would find this article useful.

Gogarty, B. "What exactly is an exact copy? And why it matters when trying to ban human reproductive cloning in Australia." Journal of Medical Ethics 29.2 (2003): 84-89. The prospect of cloning humans has created controversy and debut. The idea of producing children who are exact replicas of living (or deceased) people has received near unanimous condemnation by the world community. The article discusses objections to human cloning such as risk, diversity, lack of need, human dignity, autonomy, and individuality. The article further discusses that despite the apparent consensus that human cloning should be prohibited, groups have expressed their intentions to clone a human being. The article further discusses the need for and to formulate legislation. This article points out several objections to human cloning. This article also points out the need for legislation with regards to human cloning. Individuals requiring supporting information for objections to human cloning would find this article useful.

Greene, Adam. "The World after Dolly: International Regulation of Human Cloning." The George Washington International Law Review 33.2 (2001): 341-62. The line between science fiction and reality was blurred when the world discovered that a clone had been created from a cell of an adult sheep. That clone made society realize that human cloning was now within reach. The author evaluates international and national responses to human cloning research and argues the need for a global treaty and regulatory structure. The author explains how some nations have passed legislation on human cloning while others ignore the issue entirely. The author also discusses differing national approaches to the regulation of human cloning. The author further explains the need for an international agency to define human cloning jurisdiction, outline its structure, and regulate its research. This article is well researched and is fairly easy to read and comprehend. People interested in the international regulation of human cloning would find this article useful.

Harris, John. ""Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning." Journal of Medical Ethics 23.6 (1997): 353-59. The birth of "Dolly," the cloned sheep, has raised questions about the legitimacy of the sorts of control individuals and society exercises over human cloning, which the author believes to be human destiny. The article discusses nuclear substitution and cell mass division, the two techniques available for cloning individuals. The author also discusses the ethical dimensions of the possible uses and misuses of human cloning. Inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning are revealed. Finally, the author explains how human cloning is not inconsistent with human rights and dignity, due to a conception of reproductive rights or "procreative autonomy." This article points out possible uses and benefits of human cloning. People interested in the possible benefits of human cloning or individuals requiring supporting information in defense of human cloning would find this article useful.

Koshland, Daniel, Jr. "Ethics and Safety." Engineering the Human Germline An Exploration of the Science and Ethics of Altering the Genes We Pass to Our Children. Stock, Gregory, and John Campbell, eds. New York: Oxford U P, 2000. 25-30. There are many ideas about appropriate standards of safety and ethics. With so many different moral and safety standards, the author tries to reach a possible consensus on these subjects. The author discusses that there are a number of technical research problems that must be solved before cloning could even begin. One of those problems being safety. The author also explains people's demands for self-cloning would be very low. However, the demand for gene enhancement therapy in order to try to give their children a better chance of success in the world would probably be very large. The writing is fairly easy to read and comprehend. People interested in the safety and ethics of human cloning and related areas would find this helpful.

O'Connor, John. "Human Cloning Would Be Unethical." At Issue Cloning. Winters, Paul A., ed. San Diego: Greenhaven P, 1998. 9-12. It can be argued that human cloning is unethical because it would not serve any necessary or beneficial medical purpose. The author discusses how true progress in conventional medicine is supported and explains the difference between negative and positive genetic engineering. Negative genetic engineering being the curing of diseases, removing defects or alleviating pathologies. Positive genetic engineering being the construction and/or manufacturing of a higher or better type of human. The author further discusses that negative genetic engineering is welcome whereas positive genetic engineering is not truly therapeutic; it is not genuine medicine; it is not human progress and is not welcome. The writing is fairly easy to read and comprehend. People interested in arguments of why human cloning would be unethical or requiring support on this subject would find this writing useful.

Post, Stephen. "The Judeo-Christian Case Against Human Cloning." America 176.21 (1997): 19-22. Although some extremely hypothetical scenarios could be raised to justify human cloning, the author offers several unhypothetical criticisms of human cloning. Reaction from the public in reference to human cloning has been strongly negative. However, this negative reaction has not been clearly articulated. In an effort to articulated the negative reaction to human cloning, the author discusses seven different criticisms of human cloning. The seven different criticisms discussed are the newness of life, making males reproductively obsolete, under my thumb: cookie cutters and power, born to be harvested, the problems of mishaps, sources of self, and most importantly, respect for nature and nature's god. Often people have strong emotions about an issue but are unable to fully express those feelings. This article expresses and supports criticisms on human cloning. People that are interested in the Judeo-Christian view of human cloning would find this article useful.

Watt, Helen. "Thinking Twice: Cloning and In Vitro Fertilisation." Ethics & Medicine 18.2 (2002): 35-43. Although human cloning and in vitro fertilisation are regarded very differently by many people, the procedures have more in common that might at first appear. The author first discusses new issues that are raised by cloning. Some of these issues are genetic similarity and human identity, natural and artificial processes, healthy human functions, medical treatment, welfare of a child, and a child's sense of separateness. The author then discusses some similarities between human cloning and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Some of the similarities include cloning and human lineage, other reproductive techniques, production of children, and mentality of production. The author then discusses ways in which human cloning and IVF procedures diverge. This article points out several new issues raised by cloning as well as the similarities between human cloning and IVF. People interested in issues raised by cloning and the similarity it shares with IVF would find this article useful.

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