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An Annotated Bibliography
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Going Global: Lessons for Late Movers." Harvard Business Review 78.3 (2000): 132-142. When a company or industry decides to sell abroad the best business strategy is to use their competitive advantage of being late to enter. By devising a competitive advantage strategy they better meet the demands, opportunities, and challenges which global competition brings about. Even though a company may have a late market entry, the company can still compete with others in the industries by meeting the resource requirement to survive. This article is based upon a study of twelve emerging multinational corporations in developing countries which have proven in the past to not be prosperous. Furthermore, the article explains how multinational corporations can develop positive mind-sets and formulate strategies accordingly. In order to compete internationally in an established market companies must develop a competitive business strategy. Furthermore, this article would be an excellent resource for emerging international businesses since it was written by two highly referenced scholars in the area of corporate globalization.
Birkinshaw, Julian, Allen Morrison, and John Hulland. "Structural and Competitive Determinants of a Global Integration System." Strategic Management Journal 16.8 (1995): 637-655. A debate between whether or not globalization is good for a given industry has always existed, and the structure of a business is found to be the key determinant of global success. In order to find out if a local business can survive global markets and competition, the relationship which exists between industry globalization, business strategy, and performance must be studied. Furthermore, the strategies which businesses develop must meet criteria and be planned according to the relationship's observations; otherwise the strategy may end up being too global or not global enough to compete internationally. Through a study encompassing 124 businesses in ten different industries, the author was able to make valuable inferences on the probability of global or local businesses success. This article derives its opinions from well researched ideas based on a several pieces of supporting evidence from numerous sources and is helpful for continuing research on globalization.
Cusimano, Maryann K. Beyond Sovereignty: Issues for a Global Agenda. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. Due to an increase in open markets, technology, and societies a great number of problems have arisen between nations. The book shows several of the problems between nations and their leading causes. For instance, the changing roles of non-governmental agencies, including multinational corporations, are addressed because of their extreme impact on the global world and nations which are easily influenced by the predominant west. Furthermore, a number of possible solutions to protect sovereign nations across the world from large international entities are presented. In addition, the book proposes several theoretical arguments regarding globalizations, foreign policy, and other global issues that will need to be addressed in order to continue sovereignty of nations in the future. This book appears to be written to appeal to undergraduate students in international relations courses, because it is very term and content specific.
Danaher, Kevin, ed. Corporations Are Gonna Get Your Mama: Globalization and the Downsizing of the American Dream. Monroe, ME: Common Courage P, 1996. With mass corporate globalization dominating the world's major industries, construction of alternative institutions and resistance need to be established to fight corporate power. A key concern addressed is how mass media in the United States glorify globalization and portray that it changes the world for the better. Also, in order to continue globalization's success governments must refrain from intervening in the process is another theory argued. In fact, the numerous articles cover how governments should go about superseding in globalization of multinational corporations. Additionally, global competition of multinational establishments is becoming a major source of job loss in the U.S. workforce. This book serves as a useful tool for fighting against globalization in the United States. Within all the articles, or chapters, addressing different aspects of globalization, any business student would be able to locate common arguments and statistics about this growing trend in corporate America.
Hart, Stuart L. "Beyond Greening: Strategies for a Sustainable World." Harvard Business Review 75.1 (1997): 66-76. The primary issue in the new millennium is not global pollution and the consumption of natural resources, but rather the dire need for multinational corporations with large cash flows to achieve sustainability for all world markets. It is stressed in this article that large multinational corporations can promote an enriched living-style and a healthier environment for all those they serve through the process of globalization. The article links three different economies together to outline the global economy. First are the market economies, which show that the more affluent societies emit less pollution even though they use the most resources. When affluent nations with many multinational corporations set guidelines for achieving a prosperous future, it makes way for other corporations to follow and globalize to help their local economies living-standards. This article would prove useful when arguing for globalization, and its positive effects on a local foreign community.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Thriving Locally: In the Global Economy." Harvard Business Review 73.4 (1995): 119-127. Globalization does not have to be an expense of the local economy if it can meet certain criteria. The criteria discussed in the article helps local economies strive and make customers loyal to their product or service. Through new leading-edge concepts, competence to execute ideas, and connections with other businesses, a local business can gain strength to compete in a globalizing world. If a local company does not meet these criteria and develop a global network or alliance, then the company will become isolated and at a severe disadvantage. Furthermore, it is believed that in the future the businesses that succeed will be those who can meet global standards and enter into networks. This article is presented in an easy to read manner with new terms discussed in great depth, therefore helping an audience of any educational level understand why globalization is essential for local businesses and economies.
Leong, Siew Meng, and Chin Tiong Tan. "Managing across Borders: An Empirical Test of the Bartlett and Ghoshal  Organizational Typology." Journal of International Business Studies 24.3 (1993): 449-464. In the corporate world, four types of organizations operating within the international environment exist. Additionally, each form of international business develops in a different way and serves separate industries. The types of distinct organizations conducting business around the world can be labeled as multinational, global, international, or transnational corporations. Furthermore, these different forms should not be referred to by name interchangeably, since they are distinct. Originally, the article written was a research project testing the organizational theories of Bartlett and Ghoshal. Therefore, the article is presented in a manner similar to a scientific lab report, with sections labeled as hypotheses, measurements and implications of data, and a conclusion with ideas for future research. This article would be a useful source of secondary data, for a person of higher educational standing, in a research project discussing the developing level of globalization of corporations conducting business overseas.
Norberg-Hodge, Helena. "The Consumer Monoculture." International Journal of Consumer Studies 27.4 (2003): 258-261. As international corporations enter new markets in developing nations, the country undergoes significant changes which leave a lasting impact on cultural diversity. Globalization is the leading cause of the breakdown of cultural identity through the mass amounts of media advertisements promoting western and affluent culture. This article also focuses on the courses of actions which need to be taken in order to shift away from economic globalization and reroute to localization. Culture is imperative to national identity and consumption patterns; therefore it must be protected from multinational corporations. Furthermore, this piece of writing would prove to be very useful for arguing against globalization, because it is the most recent study conducted on the globalization of multinational corporations and its effects on local cultures.
Prahalad, C.K., and Kenneth Lieberthal. "The End of Corporate Imperialism." Harvard Business Review 76.4 (1998): 69-79. As the world becomes more global and corporations become multinational, companies must rearrange their business practices to properly reach their target market. Emerging markets are imperative to multinational corporations and companies must be aware of the four-tier Market Pyramid, based on income level, affecting these markets. The countries leading the emerging markets trend in the Market Pyramid include: China, India, and Brazil. Furthermore, Multinational corporations who are moving into emerging markets must be aware that consumption patterns vary greatly from developed nations in the west. Lastly, it is unreasonable to assume that companies should be managed the same across national borders. This article would prove to be a useful source for corporations going global, because it points out and stresses some common cultural differences and sensitivities which multinational corporations face. Furthermore, the article lays out different business, marketing, and managerial strategies for corporations going global.
Rosenau, James N. Distant Proximities: Dynamics Beyond Globalization. Princeton: Princeton University P, 2003. Globalization and localization are two extremes which a corporation faces in an international market. The book refers to these two extremes as distant proximities and argues that they must meet somewhere in the middle, due to the fact that they have an impact on one another and overlap in many different areas. Additionally, by focusing on only one of the extremes is a presumed risk of observing or not observing significant events in the multinational business world. Furthermore, the book shows that globalization is not the only force impacting world affairs in the twenty-first century and the others must be examined as well. Due to complex language in the book, it would be found most useful to those with a college education or higher specializing in international affairs.
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