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An Annotated Bibliography
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Craft, Ian. “An Inconvenience Allowance Would Solve the Egg Shortage.” British
Medical Journal 314 (1997): 1400-01. Argues against the excessive payment of
egg donors. Suggests that payment is a necessary evil and wants a national
board to screen donors. Believes a reasonable “inconvenience allowance” would
help solve the egg shortage, yet would have to be monitored to keep from being
abused. Argues that the payment of egg donors disadvantages the egg recipients
and raises the cost of being infertile. Points out the relationship between
the media and donation law. Sites the example of the Human Fertilization and
Embryology Authority policy urging doctors not to use egg donors that were
paid more than $24 per donation. Talks about upcoming laws that would be more
restrictive and possibly harm sperm banks operated for commercial purposes. Is
a valuable article for those with knowledge of the subject wanting a logical
reasoning on the payment of egg donors. Provides factual information to
support a moral argument against the excessive payment of egg donors.
Elster, Nanette. “Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues for Women Donating Eggs
and Embryos.” Human Rights 29.3 (2002): 23-24. Begins with the history of
Dolly the sheep and a brief history of cloning and stem cell research.
Explains federal laws, including that federal funding cannot support, “the
creation of human embryo or embryos for research purposes” (23). Explains the
options for excess eggs after donation, and the option that allow couples to
donate their left over eggs to research. Warns of the exploitation of donors
and discusses ways to prevent that, including appropriate payment for donors.
Urges that the physical and mental health effects for donors be more closely
examined and appropriate legislation be passed to protect donors. Provides
good scientific background and technical information for research in the
ethical side of the subject. Provides impartial facts, as well as an educated
opinion on the subject.
Johnson, Martin H. “The Culture of Unpaid and Voluntary Egg Donation Should Be
Strengthened” British Medical Journal 314 (1997): 1401-02. Discusses the
legal reasons why payment for egg donation is wrong. Shows how payment can
have a negative effect on donors and their motives for donating, and how that
can be detrimental to the recipients pregnancy and child. Explains the effects
of payment on a child born from an egg donation. Shows that the majority of
British women favor unpaid egg donations. Suggests that laws against the
payment of donors do not have a negative on donation but encourages the
already existing idea of donation without payment. Provides information on the
negative effects of donors who receive payment. Provides scientific and legal
information, which helps support ethical arguments.
Klein, Jeffery and Mark V. Sauer. “Oocyte Donation.” Best Practice & Research
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 16 (2002): 277-83. Gives the history of egg
donation, beginning in with rabbits, and continuing to other mammals. Explains
the uses of egg donation in modern reproductive technologies. Gives an
overview of indications for donation, recipient screening and the recruitment
and screening of donors. Gives a detailed history of egg donation, as well as
current donor procedures. Discusses the risks involved for egg donors.
Describes the criteria that egg donors must meet, including, being free
infectious diseases, heritable conditions, and behavioral risk factors.
Describes the screening process potential donors must undergo, and the laws
that effect them. Discusses the psychological effects and monetary
reimbursement of egg donation. Does a good job of covering a lot of aspects,
but as a result is vague in areas.
Klock, Susan Caruso, Jan Elman Stout, and Marie Davidson. “Psychological
Characteristics and Factors Related to Willingness to Donate Again Among
Anonymous Oocyte Donors.” Fertility and Sterility 79 (2003): 1312-16. Reviews
a study that “assesses the post-donation psychological status”(1312) of
recruited and paid egg donors. Discusses the materials and methods used in
the study, including the types of test used to review the donor’s
psychological status. Reports the results of these tests, giving detailed
information on the psychological state of one hundred fifteen first time and
repeat donors. Discusses the demographics of egg donation, how the women
learned about egg donation, their honesty in reporting medical history, and
how many and what kind of donors would be willing to donate again and in what
conditions. Evaluates the motivation of egg donors, including their altruistic
and financial reasons. Compares the demographic differences in first time and
repeat donors. Is a valuable article for someone with an extensive knowledge
on the subject, such as a professional or graduate student. Uses detailed
scientific language to report a scientific study to the medical community.
Provides valuable information on the psychological effects of egg donation.
Kolata, Gina. “Price of Egg Donation Soars, Setting Off a Debate on Ethics.”
New York Times 25 Feb. 1998: A1+. Oklahoma State University Microfilms.
Discusses the rise in price for egg donors. Examines the controversy that
high prices create, including possible price wars for eggs, as well as debate
over whether eggs are “a gift or a free market commodity”(A1). Discusses
payment for eggs in the U.S. and other countries. Reviews the possible risks
for egg donors, citing to near death incidents. Discusses the possible
positive outcomes of a pregnancy from a donated egg. Includes that it is
important to “make sure that children come into the world in a loving
way”(A13). Is not a very scientific article, but provides an interesting
overview into egg donation. Gives the opinions of professionals in the field.
Presents complicated issues in a relatively simple way to make the subject
matter available to all types of people.
Larkin, Marilynn. “Curb Costs of Egg Donation, Urge US Specialists.” The
Lancet 356 (2002): 569. Suggests the payment of egg donors, “should reflect
the time, inconvenience, and physical and emotional demands.” Discusses the
pros of capping the donation payment at $5,000, which include avoiding price
wars. Describes the two types of monetary compensation offered, direct
monetary compensation and a sharing arrangement. Emphasizes that “payment to
the donor should never be conditional.” Discusses the differences in the
financial rewards in the U.S. and in England, where there are much stricter
donation policies. Argues that even a high sum like $5,000 is not enough to
have a strong influence on most women, who donate for anyone wanting a better
understanding of how egg donation is handled in the U.S. as opposed to other
countries. Is a good article from an economical viewpoint, but fails to
provide much in depth information.
Meyer, Cheryl L. The Wandering Uterus: Politics and the Reproductive Rights of
Women. New York: New York UP, 1997. Gives a brief yet thorough history of egg
donation. Proceeds to give a detailed account of the donation and egg
retrieval process. Discusses the double standard in egg donation and sperm
donation, especially with regards to payment and anonymity of donors.
Discusses the egg shortage and the causes behind it, including the
cryopreservation of embryos. Reviews the pros and cons of “Methuselah Moms”
or postmenopausal mothers. Explores the double standard between older men and
women who parent children. Discusses the discriminatory practices involved in
egg donation, based mostly on the race. Reviews the risk of egg donation for
donors and recipients, including complications form hormone therapy and
implantation. Points out the risks for children born from a donated egg,
including birth defects and risky pregnancies. Reviews the regulations behind
egg donation. Valuable book for information on the causes and effects and
pros and cons of egg donation as it concerns women and children. Is not
technical in its approach to the subject, yet is well researched.
Milich, Marvin F. “Reproductive Technologies Must Be Regulated to Protect
Society.” Reproductive Technologies. Leone, Bruno, Scott Barbour, and Brenda
Stalcup, eds. San Diego: Green Haven P, 1996. 158-62. Discusses reproductive
technology as it affects social values and the moral dilemma that these
procedures create. Discusses the medical community’s responsibility towards
patients, including completely informing patients as to statistics and risks
involved. Urges patients to take appropriate responsibility for their medical
procedures, patients cannot completely rely on technology, they must do their
own research and ask their doctors appropriate questions. Discusses the
governments role in regulating reproductive technologies. Suggests several
policies that the government could implement to help regulate reproductive
technology. Includes the publishing of information regarding IVF services and
statistics, insurance coverage, and encouraging the privatization of
reproductive technology organizations. Is informative in the legal and
governmental area of egg donation. Does not require any previous scientific
or medical knowledge.
Sauer, Mark V. “Exploitation or a Woman’s Right?” British Medical Journal 314
(1997): 1403. Shows the differences in egg donation in the U.S. and other
countries where payment is prohibited. Discusses the “moral ambiguity” egg
donation creates. Weighs the advantages and disadvantages for donors and
recipients. Shows how mistrust for reproductive sciences has grown. States
that doctors have encouraged payment for egg donors. Argues that a fertility
program is only as strong as its donation program and that the payment of
donors encourages these programs. Discusses the ability of a young woman to
make a responsible decision about such an important matter yet recognizes that
they are allowed by law to this. Explain that the individuals have rights and
society should look toward the programs enrolling these donors. Is an
interesting article that provides many ideas for topic to do further
research. Does not give much technical information or facts.
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