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Human and Animal Cloning:
An Annotated Bibliography
Erica Roberson
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Breitowitz, Yitzchok. "What's So Bad About Human Cloning?" Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12.4 (2002): 325-41. The existence of humankind is entitled to proper respect. Jewish perspectives on medical science revolve around God's healing. Many religions, including some Christian, believe that medical intervention is useless. Many people believe that by using medicine and cloning, doctors are playing God. They say it is wrong to play God. It is argued that cloning is not the natural way to produce children. This article gives an interesting look into the many perspectives of cloning. Issues of justice and psychological aspects are discussed. In order for individuality to reign, cloning must be banned. This article has clear and precise points on why cloning must be banned.

Evans, John H. "Religion and Human Cloning: An Exploratory Analysis of the First Available Opinion Data." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41.4 (2002): 747-58. Research is being done on the connections of religion and human cloning. Human cloning has caused much debate among theologians. Two groups have recently advocated human cloning. Clonaid is associated with the Raelians. The second group is led by a fertility doctor and a reproductive specialist. There are two types of cloning: reproductive and therapeutic. Reproductive cloning involves implanting and embryo into a woman's uterus. Therapeutic cloning involves using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create embryos. Roman Catholics oppose cloning of any kind, as do Protestants. Their arguments come from morality and the abortion debate. Cloning is a very controversial religious issue, and studies have been done in order to find out where people stand on cloning. This article gives a good perspective on the religious issues of cloning. The author's purpose is well-defined, and this article is very convincing.

Greene, Adam. "The World after Dolly: International Regulation of Human Cloning." The George Washington International Law Review 33.2 (2001): 341-62. If individuals are cloned, there will be no difference in personality, looks and many other things. Dolly, a sheep that has been cloned, is the topic of much debate. Many researchers say that cloning is ethically wrong. Others think it is alright to clone animals and human beings. For the most part, the world was not prepared for Dolly. There have been many developments in cloning after Dolly. Cloning is met with much skepticism and many questions. Fame plays a large role in cloning. As long as money is to be made, new heights will be reached in human and animal cloning. This article has been clearly researched and gives interesting points on the skepticism of cloning.

Harley, Calvin B. "Cloning: Techniques and Applications in Human Health." Generations (2000): 65-71. There are a variety of applications of cloning. Cloning can be beneficial to human health. Dolly, a sheep cloned in 1997, was cloned from an adult cell. This cloning breakthrough suggested that it is possible to clone anyone. Cloning an animal is done through nuclear transfer. Cloning has many applications in science as well as industrial and agricultural applications. Cloning brings scientists closer to the goal of breeding "perfect" mammals. It also will help expand genetic diversity. Cloning can also be used for medical purposes. Organs could be cloned to save lives. This article gives insight into the positive aspects of cloning. It is well researched and convincing.

Lipschutz, Joshua H. "To clone or not to clone- a Jewish perspective." Journal of Medical Ethics 25.2 (1999): 105-107. Human cloning can be done very easily with today's technology. In this article, cloning is looked at from a Jewish perspective. In the Jewish tradition, cloning is not necessarily wrong. It is said to be very beneficial for infertile couples. It also suggests that the brain of a cloned individual would be unique to itself. People's brains develop differently than others. Identical twins will have different brain development. The author suggests that, in the Bible, God cloned Adam when He made Eve. It is therefore suggested that cloning is alright since God cloned human beings. This article seems well researched, but it also seems to have some very controversial points as well. It is very interesting to read, and it poses some intriguing questions.

McGee, Glenn. The Perfect Baby A Pragmatic Approach to Genetics. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. Cloning is an exact copy of an individual with all the features of the original. It is as if someone was copied on a photocopy machine. It is instrumental to the furthering of humanity, and randomness is nonexistent. The idea is to have a genetically perfect baby. This is a controversial issue, and many people do not share this belief. Many believe that cloning and other types of genetic engineering are playing God. Many believe that cloning will take us away from being God-created. There is an argument that God designed people in His own image. Cloning would be stepping over that boundary. This article is very controversial and intriguing. It has some valid points and great arguments for and against cloning.

O'Donovan, Oliver. Begotten or Made? New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Cloning is viewed as a way of begetting, or giving existence to another human being. It is a means of reproducing something other than the natural way of procreation. Humankind was told to be fruitful and multiply. There is an argument that cloning would be a way of being fruitful and multiplying. Overall, the argument revolves around the natural way of procreation. Cloning is thought of as unnatural. Christians believe that the male-female relationship is the healthy way of reproducing. Cloning is thought of as trying to play God. Reproduction happens between two sexes. Cloning would take away the reproduction of the two sexes. This book has some very valid points, but it also has some very controversial points.

Savulescu, Julian. "Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation." Journal of Medical Ethics 25.2 (1999): 87-95. Cloning is morally right, because people need cells and tissues to help produce healthy embryos and fetuses. This article points out the many arguments against and for human cloning. Individuality and the person's well-being may be at stake. However, cloning could be used for treatment of infertility or as a source of cells and tissue. Cloning can be used as a source of cells and tissues for transplantation. Hypothetical examples are given for tissue transmutation and producing embryos. The author argues that treatment of disease is the most important use for cloning. He also gives examples for why cloning is a moral requirement. The author of this article gives some valid points for the issue of human cloning.

Shanin, Elizabeth. "International Response to Human Cloning." Chicago Journal of International Law 3.1 (2002): 255-61. A treaty enforcing the banning of human cloning is necessary. The United Nations have been trying to have a treaty created that will do this. The United States have passed a bill that bans cloning. There are some problems that may arise. Not everyone will want to follow the treaty. In order for human cloning to be banned, everyone needs to be in agreement. A treaty may not be followed, but the United Nations must try. This article gives some insight into the positive and negative sides of a treaty. The author makes good points about the banning of cloning and how an enforced treaty would affect it. She clearly points out that a treaty is necessary for cloning to stop.

Van Vleck, L.D. "Implications of Cloning for Breed Improvement Strategies: Are Traditional Methods of Animal Improvement Obsolete?" Journal of Animal Science 77 (1999): 111-21. First impressions of cloning as breed improvement are mostly incorrect. Cloning has been suggested for livestock improvement. Clones may or may not be identical. There are many formulas used to show whether clones are truly identical. If the perfect animal is found, then it is suggested that its clones would be perfect as well. Cloning could also be used as a reproductive tool. Animal breeders assume that cloning is a way to reproduce. There are many concerns, such as inbreeding and spreading of diseases. This can be risky, so it is suggested that breeders use traditional methods of reproduction. This article is very well researched on the cloning of animals. The author has given many good reasons for the riskiness of animal cloning.

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