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An Annotated Bibliography
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Bruce, Donald and Ann Bruce, ed. Engineering Genesis the Ethics of Genetic
Engineering in Non-Human Species. London: Earthscan Publications, 1998.
Ethics of xenotransplantation is brought into question by problems and underlying
issues. To begin with, tissues rejection is a problem that has not yet been
overcome. If the transplanted tissue cannot survive, the patient has little chance of
survival. However, efforts are being made to genetically modify organs to prevent
rejection. Underlying issues evolve into a debate as to whether it is wrong to use
animal organs for human benefit. Also, problems with mixing human and animal
tissue and risks to the participants, as well as humans who are in contact with the
participants, is an issue. Finally, the welfare of both humans and animals is
brought into question. The language of this article makes it a valuable source for
students ranging from high school to experts, because the author explains the
difficult aspects very clearly.
Clark, Margaret A. "This Little Piggy Went to Market: The Xenotransplantation and
Xenozoonose Debate." The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 27.2 (1999):
137-52. Applications of xenograft technology involve clinical risks, ethical
concerns, and policy issues. To begin with, Clark states the risks and medical
issues involved with xenotransplantation and goes into detail on rejection and
infection due to the transplants. Then, she discusses public health issues and her
concern with cross-species diseases. Next, ethical issues are addressed and
discussed. Finally, Clark calls for a moratorium to be placed on
xenotransplantation to slow the rapidly progressing research. She claims that
fewer risks will result if more time is taken to research each aspect. Scholars who
study xenotransplantation would benefit from this article, because Clark
criticizes the way research and ethics are being handled in almost every aspect of
Committee on Xenograft Transplantation: Ethical Issues and Public Policy.
Xenotransplantation Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy P, 1996. Health risk of infectious disease transmission, the
science base, and the ethical and public policy issues were the topics that were
given recommendations in a conference on xenotransplantation held by the
Institute of Medicine. First, they stated the risk of infectious diseases being
transmitted from animals to humans in xenotransplantation. Then, they discussed
regulations that should be placed on clinical trails, and they decided further
investigation on ethical issues is needed. Next, they recommended that
coordination of federal agencies and other entities be necessary, and when the
agencies feel the scientific base is sufficient, human trials should proceed. Finally,
they feel the potential of xenotransplantation is great enough to receive funding.
This book is a good resource for those researching xenotransplantation to know
where and under what recommendations research on xenotransplantation began.
Derenge, Sara and Marilyn Rossman Bartucci. "Issues Surrounding
Xenotransplantation." Association of Operating Nurses Journal 70.3 (1999):
Proquest Direct. Oklahoma State University Library. Article 44626921. 23 Sept.
Xenotransplantation raises concerns due to disease transmition between species,
consent issues, ethical issues involving the sacrifice of animals for humans,
psychological issues due to receiving animal organs, and economic issues. To
begin with, the benefits of pigs being used as opposed to primates are discussed.
Also, psychological problems are inevitable, because patients who receive human
organs experience trauma, and it is expected that the trauma will elevate when
transplanting animal organs. Next, medical issues, such as risks of animal diseases
mutating with human genes to become the next epidemic, are a concern. Finally,
financial issues are addressed, because xenotransplantation will be considerably
more expensive that human transplants. Scholars who are addressing the concerns
of xenotransplantation would find this article very helpful, because it
explains medical concerns in detail.
Greenstein, Julia L. and Henk-Jan Schuurman. "Solid Organ Xenotransplantation:
Progress, Promise and Regulatory Issues." Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
8.1 (2001): 15-29. Because of safety issues brought by xenotransplantation,
regulations have been placed on procedures. Xenotransplantation involves
transplanting cells tissues, and organs between two different species. Procedures
of this sort can benefit people who are in the final stages of organ failure.
However, many of the transplants can cause painful organ rejection. Issues of
microbiological safety, which includes prevention the spread of disease from one
specie to another, is also a concern, but scientists in the field feel the obstacle can
be overcome. In addition, regulatory acts began to come into place as soon as
xenotransplantation began. Authorities set regulations on appropriate candidates
to receive the procedure. Anyone who needs basic information on
xenotransplantation would find this article to be a useful source, because of the
variety of information given on the topic and the language used in the article.
Hughes, Jonathan. "Xenografting: Ethical Issues." Journal of Medical Ethics 24.1 (1998):
18-24. Problems of xenotransplantation interfering with nature, affecting
recipients, affecting other humans, and affecting the donor animals are ethical
issues brought into question. To begin with, interfering with nature is seen as an
arbitrary topic when looking at the other issues on hand. Next, effects on the
recipient should not hinder the continuation of xenotransplantation, because the
decision to proceed with the transplant will be made by the patient. Also, effects
on other humans can bring xenotransplantation into question. However,
precautions are being taken to assure the safety of others. Finally, effects on donor
animals are discussed, and Hughes argues harming animals to benefit humans is
acceptable. The language of this article allows a range of readers to understand
what is being written. In addition, it explains xenotransplantation in detail so the
reader can fully understand what is being discussed.
Mani, Vasudevan and Ryan Mathew. "Xenotransplantation: Animal Rights and Human
Wrongs." Ethics and Medicine 19.1 (2003): 55-62. Xenotransplantation
could solve the issue of patients dying before receiving an organ transplant.
Problems of hyper acute rejection have arisen in the early stages of
xenotransplantation research. However, knowledge of the subject is improving
and may overcome the barriers. Issues of animal suffering in comparison with
human benefit is the next topic to be discussed, and ethical acceptability brings
intriguing questions of whether animal to animal transplantations should proceed.
Also, there is concern over the involved processes large primates and/or pigs
must endure to harvest the organs. To evolve organs that would function
well in a human body, the animals must be genetically modified. Finally, animals
should be given the best living conditions possible and put through minimal
suffering. Scholars who agree with xenotransplantation but also agree animals
should receive privileged treatment while they are alive would benefit from this
article. The author shows in detail that xenotransplantation may become
necessary, but participants should be given privileges while they are alive.
Vanderpool, Harold Y. "Commentary: A Critique of Clark's Frightening
Xenotransplatation Scenario." The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 27.2
(1999): 153-57. A moratorium on xenotransplantation is not justifiable,
and the benefits of xenotransplatation are greater than Clark depicts. First, hyper-
acute rejection, acute vascular rejection, and how work is being done to over
come both problems are discussed. Also, medicine to stop the spread of infectious
disease is being used successfully in clinical trials. Next, the FDA is overseeing
cellular, tissue, and organ transplants and is not breaking regulation because of
industry pressure. Finally, the benefits of finding "a balance between delimited
infectious disease risks and the moral imperative of not turning away from
patients" should be the goal of researchers (156). Xenotransplantation gives
patients a realistic chance of surviving several diseases. Scholars who are
searching for benefits of xenotransplantation would benefit from this article,
because this article does an excellent job of explaining these benefits.
Weiss, Robin A. "Science, Medicine, and the Future: Xenotransplantation." British
Medical Journal 317.7163 (1998): 931-934. The potential and problems of
xenotransplantation are discussed. To begin with, pigs are the primary animals
being used in xenotransplantation research trials. To prevent hyper-acute rejection
in humans who receive the transplants, researchers would breed pigs with organs
that resembled human organs. However, the researchers are having problems
removing specific genes from the pig organs. Secondly, xenotransplantation
would make an easy passageway for pig viruses to reach humans, but many
viruses will be eliminated by breeding specific pathogens out of the pigs that
donate organs. Xenotransplantation may benefit the recipient but may harm the
surrounding community, which poses an ethical problem. Due to the language of
this article, experts would find it useful. In addition, the article gives a large
amount of information on recipients and donators involved in the transplants.
Welin, Stellan. "Starting Clinical Trials of Xenotransplantation-Reflections on the
Ethics of the Early Phase." Journal of Medical Ethics 26.4 (2000): 231-36.
Only patients in late stages of organ failure with no other plan for treatment
should be allowed to access xenotransplantation due to issues and concerns about
the procedure. Issues of risks should first be accessed in making regulations.
Then, questions are addressed according to moratorium proposals and what
restrictions should be placed on early transplanted patents. Framing ethics for
human research proceeds into which patient should be considered as candidates
and why. Finally, the importance of cell and tissue transplants over organ
transplants are discussed, because organ transplants are more of a health risk.
The language of this article is geared toward scholars with higher educations such
as college students and graduate students.
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