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Xenotransplantation Ethics:
An Annotated Bibliography
Kristen Sievert
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Bruce, Donald and Ann Bruce, ed. Engineering Genesis the Ethics of Genetic Engineering in Non-Human Species. London: Earthscan Publications, 1998. Ethics of xenotransplantation is brought into question by problems and underlying issues. To begin with, tissues rejection is a problem that has not yet been overcome. If the transplanted tissue cannot survive, the patient has little chance of survival. However, efforts are being made to genetically modify organs to prevent rejection. Underlying issues evolve into a debate as to whether it is wrong to use animal organs for human benefit. Also, problems with mixing human and animal tissue and risks to the participants, as well as humans who are in contact with the participants, is an issue. Finally, the welfare of both humans and animals is brought into question. The language of this article makes it a valuable source for students ranging from high school to experts, because the author explains the difficult aspects very clearly.

Clark, Margaret A. "This Little Piggy Went to Market: The Xenotransplantation and Xenozoonose Debate." The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 27.2 (1999): 137-52. Applications of xenograft technology involve clinical risks, ethical concerns, and policy issues. To begin with, Clark states the risks and medical issues involved with xenotransplantation and goes into detail on rejection and infection due to the transplants. Then, she discusses public health issues and her concern with cross-species diseases. Next, ethical issues are addressed and discussed. Finally, Clark calls for a moratorium to be placed on xenotransplantation to slow the rapidly progressing research. She claims that fewer risks will result if more time is taken to research each aspect. Scholars who study xenotransplantation would benefit from this article, because Clark criticizes the way research and ethics are being handled in almost every aspect of xenotransplantation.

Committee on Xenograft Transplantation: Ethical Issues and Public Policy. Xenotransplantation Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy P, 1996. Health risk of infectious disease transmission, the science base, and the ethical and public policy issues were the topics that were given recommendations in a conference on xenotransplantation held by the Institute of Medicine. First, they stated the risk of infectious diseases being transmitted from animals to humans in xenotransplantation. Then, they discussed regulations that should be placed on clinical trails, and they decided further investigation on ethical issues is needed. Next, they recommended that coordination of federal agencies and other entities be necessary, and when the agencies feel the scientific base is sufficient, human trials should proceed. Finally, they feel the potential of xenotransplantation is great enough to receive funding. This book is a good resource for those researching xenotransplantation to know where and under what recommendations research on xenotransplantation began.

Derenge, Sara and Marilyn Rossman Bartucci. "Issues Surrounding Xenotransplantation." Association of Operating Nurses Journal 70.3 (1999): Proquest Direct. Oklahoma State University Library. Article 44626921. 23 Sept. 2003 http://80-proquest.umi.com.argo.library.okstate.edu/. Xenotransplantation raises concerns due to disease transmition between species, consent issues, ethical issues involving the sacrifice of animals for humans, psychological issues due to receiving animal organs, and economic issues. To begin with, the benefits of pigs being used as opposed to primates are discussed. Also, psychological problems are inevitable, because patients who receive human organs experience trauma, and it is expected that the trauma will elevate when transplanting animal organs. Next, medical issues, such as risks of animal diseases mutating with human genes to become the next epidemic, are a concern. Finally, financial issues are addressed, because xenotransplantation will be considerably more expensive that human transplants. Scholars who are addressing the concerns of xenotransplantation would find this article very helpful, because it explains medical concerns in detail.

Greenstein, Julia L. and Henk-Jan Schuurman. "Solid Organ Xenotransplantation: Progress, Promise and Regulatory Issues." Journal of Commercial Biotechnology 8.1 (2001): 15-29. Because of safety issues brought by xenotransplantation, regulations have been placed on procedures. Xenotransplantation involves transplanting cells tissues, and organs between two different species. Procedures of this sort can benefit people who are in the final stages of organ failure. However, many of the transplants can cause painful organ rejection. Issues of microbiological safety, which includes prevention the spread of disease from one specie to another, is also a concern, but scientists in the field feel the obstacle can be overcome. In addition, regulatory acts began to come into place as soon as xenotransplantation began. Authorities set regulations on appropriate candidates to receive the procedure. Anyone who needs basic information on xenotransplantation would find this article to be a useful source, because of the variety of information given on the topic and the language used in the article.

Hughes, Jonathan. "Xenografting: Ethical Issues." Journal of Medical Ethics 24.1 (1998): 18-24. Problems of xenotransplantation interfering with nature, affecting recipients, affecting other humans, and affecting the donor animals are ethical issues brought into question. To begin with, interfering with nature is seen as an arbitrary topic when looking at the other issues on hand. Next, effects on the recipient should not hinder the continuation of xenotransplantation, because the decision to proceed with the transplant will be made by the patient. Also, effects on other humans can bring xenotransplantation into question. However, precautions are being taken to assure the safety of others. Finally, effects on donor animals are discussed, and Hughes argues harming animals to benefit humans is acceptable. The language of this article allows a range of readers to understand what is being written. In addition, it explains xenotransplantation in detail so the reader can fully understand what is being discussed.

Mani, Vasudevan and Ryan Mathew. "Xenotransplantation: Animal Rights and Human Wrongs." Ethics and Medicine 19.1 (2003): 55-62. Xenotransplantation could solve the issue of patients dying before receiving an organ transplant. Problems of hyper acute rejection have arisen in the early stages of xenotransplantation research. However, knowledge of the subject is improving and may overcome the barriers. Issues of animal suffering in comparison with human benefit is the next topic to be discussed, and ethical acceptability brings intriguing questions of whether animal to animal transplantations should proceed. Also, there is concern over the involved processes large primates and/or pigs must endure to harvest the organs. To evolve organs that would function well in a human body, the animals must be genetically modified. Finally, animals should be given the best living conditions possible and put through minimal suffering. Scholars who agree with xenotransplantation but also agree animals should receive privileged treatment while they are alive would benefit from this article. The author shows in detail that xenotransplantation may become necessary, but participants should be given privileges while they are alive.

Vanderpool, Harold Y. "Commentary: A Critique of Clark's Frightening Xenotransplatation Scenario." The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 27.2 (1999): 153-57. A moratorium on xenotransplantation is not justifiable, and the benefits of xenotransplatation are greater than Clark depicts. First, hyper- acute rejection, acute vascular rejection, and how work is being done to over come both problems are discussed. Also, medicine to stop the spread of infectious disease is being used successfully in clinical trials. Next, the FDA is overseeing cellular, tissue, and organ transplants and is not breaking regulation because of industry pressure. Finally, the benefits of finding "a balance between delimited infectious disease risks and the moral imperative of not turning away from patients" should be the goal of researchers (156). Xenotransplantation gives patients a realistic chance of surviving several diseases. Scholars who are searching for benefits of xenotransplantation would benefit from this article, because this article does an excellent job of explaining these benefits.

Weiss, Robin A. "Science, Medicine, and the Future: Xenotransplantation." British Medical Journal 317.7163 (1998): 931-934. The potential and problems of xenotransplantation are discussed. To begin with, pigs are the primary animals being used in xenotransplantation research trials. To prevent hyper-acute rejection in humans who receive the transplants, researchers would breed pigs with organs that resembled human organs. However, the researchers are having problems removing specific genes from the pig organs. Secondly, xenotransplantation would make an easy passageway for pig viruses to reach humans, but many viruses will be eliminated by breeding specific pathogens out of the pigs that donate organs. Xenotransplantation may benefit the recipient but may harm the surrounding community, which poses an ethical problem. Due to the language of this article, experts would find it useful. In addition, the article gives a large amount of information on recipients and donators involved in the transplants.

Welin, Stellan. "Starting Clinical Trials of Xenotransplantation-Reflections on the Ethics of the Early Phase." Journal of Medical Ethics 26.4 (2000): 231-36. Only patients in late stages of organ failure with no other plan for treatment should be allowed to access xenotransplantation due to issues and concerns about the procedure. Issues of risks should first be accessed in making regulations. Then, questions are addressed according to moratorium proposals and what restrictions should be placed on early transplanted patents. Framing ethics for human research proceeds into which patient should be considered as candidates and why. Finally, the importance of cell and tissue transplants over organ transplants are discussed, because organ transplants are more of a health risk. The language of this article is geared toward scholars with higher educations such as college students and graduate students.

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