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Defining Art: An Annotated Bibliography
Ellen Fultz
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Dorn, Charles. "The Deterritorialization of Art." Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 34.2 (2004): 141-60. Two arguments are presented in this article; the first confronts the reconstruction of art and the second draws attention to the effects of cultural globalization. Moreover, the author argues that the term "art," socially is regarded for the elite only, but "culture" is a term for a general crowd. He outlines how culture is becoming more global instead of exclusive, especially in the United States. The article was intended for a general audience. It aims to educate, to those who do not realize, that the cultures of the world are melting together. Media, government, and public societies all are affected by this deterritorialization. Overall, this article is a good source for extending research.

Duncum, Paul. "Visual Culture Isn't Just Visual: Multiliteracy, Multimodality and Meaning." Studies in Art Education 45.3 (2004): 252-65. This article expands the area that art covers. Several new innovations have influenced the world enough to where art education should include language, pictures, as well as sound and music. Duncum argues that art educators need to consider bringing this new phenomenon of not exclusively visual form of art into the classroom. He claims that visual imagery now includes communication that needs more than a simple picture to convey the message, such as advertisements. This article is made for the general public, using common language. The audience should be well educated but does not need to be an expert in the field of visual communication. The author supports his argument well to give a stable source of information.

Elkins, James. "Art History and Images that are Not Art." The Art Bulletin 77.4 (1995): 553-71. In opposition of all images considered art, the author retorts that images may or may not be art. Instead of having a massive, unorganized pile of things considered art, the author suggests that everything lie under the umbrella of images with sub-categories (one being art). Instead of the history of art, it is the history of images. It is more popular for an image to be informal and not reach its full status of "art" than to have a formal painting to be considered "art." The author surveys the field of image studies. The article is intended for the general, educated audience. The article adds insights to new definitions of art and should be considered as a good source to find information.

Galenson, David W. "Was Jackson Pollock the Greatest Modern American Painter? A Quantitative Investigation." Historical Methods 35.3 (2002): 117-28. Jackson Pollock is declared a leader in a time of "advanced art." Debates form to decide who is the most important modern American painter. The competition includes Any Warhol, Jasper Johns, and Jackson Pollock. The leading artists were conceptually innovative who brought unmarked ideas to the art world. The article examines some of the most controversial artists as being the most successful artists of the 20th century. The article includes several surveys, evaluating different aspects that would lead to finding the greatest modern artists. With all the evidence given by Galenson, his argument is profuse enough to be understood by general readers. It is a superior article for supporting evidence due to the enormous research in the article.

Margolis, Joseph. What, After All, Is a Work of Art? University Park: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1999. Vast expanse of art makes a definition hard to define, yet the definition needs to be clear-cut. If the definition is exclusive, then there is no question left if a work is considered art or not. The author gives his definition that artwork is a physical body that is a cultural entity. Works, even controversial pieces, can stand as art with his definition, even though it does not encompass some works. This definition is still a controversial one. Even though he supplies a definition, the author explains that defining art does not matter as much as theory of art does. The author achieves success in explaining art and theory. The complex area of art is examined well supported by a vast amount of research.

Matheson, Carl and Evan Kirchhoff. "Critical Notice." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33.4 (2003): 575-99. The authors oppose James Young's perception of art. They believe that art should not be put into such a narrow-minded perspective, as they think Young does. The authors believe that there is a deeper intellectual connection with art and its viewer. There are four specific areas that the authors focus on to prove wrong Young's theory about art. The article is a first - rate attack upon an opposing view, giving several legitimate reasons to disagree with Young. Having a vast knowledge of art and history of art is a needed to understand the complex critical analysis. The article gives a well-supported argument.

Siegel, Jeanne. "Materiality Is the Message." Art Journal 58.2 (1999): 109-12. The Museum of Modern Art exhibited a show from Jackson Pollock. This showing had more curators and critiques comment on his work. The article gives both views from those opposed to Pollock's works and those who favor them. Siegel dicusses how some art critiques need more of an interpretive basis before critiquing a work. The author establishes a strong force fighting for Pollock's success, which is further enforced with supporting critics against those who believe Pollock's work was clumsy and superficial. The audience should need a general art history knowledge in order to comprehend the article. The article stands alone as a well-processed argument that supports itself. It has vast information that provides the article to being a useful source.

Tilghman, B. R. But Is It Art? New York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1984. The book describes the philosophies of art and how these evaluations of art arise. The author entails how important art is; art and it's value is discussed at great length. It examines the traditional theories and definitions of art. Identifying something as a work of art and judging its value is another important discussion the author brings. Debates over works, of whether they are actually art or not, are provided throughout the text. The book is intended for an educated person, with a general background in art. The book has great ideas and explanations for its conclusions. The precise defining of what art is makes the book more involved and easier for one to agree or disagree. Art and the complexity of its definition is well discussed through the book, making it a quality source.

Young, James O. "Defining Art Responsibly." British Journal of Aesthetics 37.1 (1997): 57-66. The author of this article believes that there should be a standard with art. Young argues for a strict evaluation of a work before bestowing grace such as the name of art. He does not believe that it should be an everyday, simple task for a work to receive the title of arthood. Young explains to institutional theorists how to make sure the appropriate art is deemed with arthood. He also states how to ensure that the right works of art are always valuable. These institutional theorists need to remind the art world to act responsibly when giving something the title of art. The argument is targeted toward the art critiques and curators. A vast knowledge in art studies is needed to fully comprehend this article. It is a superb article to evaluate.

Wee, Cavan. "Marcel Duchamp's Readymades: Challenging the Status and Function of the Art Object." Cavante-Garde.com. 12 Oct. 2004 <http://www.cavant-garde.com/articles/duchamp.shtml>. The website examines the readymades made by Marcel Duchamp. The controversial pieces have sparked a debate over where the boundaries of art lie. Before the avant-garde artists, art was not defined, but not needed to be because of the uniformity. When artists push the boundaries, or even exceed them, the question of what actually is art becomes apparent. The readymades by Duchamp that considered vulgar and never hold value actually helped launch a further investigation into art by the next generation of artists. The website is informative and well discussed. The general audience is for art enthusiasts with a background in art history. Otherwise, the article would be complicated to comprehend.

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