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An Annotated Bibliography
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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"Consequence Methods-Applied After the "Target" Behavior Has Occurred." Negative
Reinforcement, Escape and Avoidance Learning - Psychological Self-Help. 14 Oct. 2004 <http://mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap11/chap111.htm>. This article states that to understand human behavior and emotions we must realize that actions we take to avoid discomfort are reinforced by the relief we experience. Moreover negative reinforcement strengthens an immediately proceeding behavior in the same way as positive reinforcement does. The article discusses how negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment and hardly recognized as a modifier of behaviors and emotions. Furthermore punishment can be distinguished from reinforcement in that it produces an immediate change whereas negative reinforcement takes time. This article also gives a step by step method in how to avoid or escape something unpleasant using negative reinforcement. Additionally these methods may be useful to teachers who are trying to control a behavior within themselves that effects the class. By understanding the advantages of negative reinforcement one can effectively control and escape any unwanted behaviors.
Dil, Nasim, and Edward Earl Gott. "Improvement of Arithmetic Self Concept
Through Combined Positive Reinforcement, Peer Interaction and Sequential Curriculum." Journal of School Psychology 9.4 (1971): 462 -72. By understanding the important role of a positive relationship with their students' educators can create a teaching method that improves the child's academic attainment and social skills. Furthermore evaluations that are given to students when testing their cognitive development lack the ability to indicate the level of desire at which the child is retaining information. To help calculate the effectiveness of positive reinforcement an experiment group was set up to evaluate how arithmetic skills, combined with a set of affective goals, can be made interesting. Glavin and Quay state that motivating children to learn with a positive attitude "can increase self confidence, resulting in better self image and resolution of some emotional conflicts, which may in turn result in better social adjustment" (1969). Moreover this journal can be useful to educators who seek for methods of teaching that can improve the child's social and academic level at which he or she interacts.
Estes, David. "Young Children's Understanding of the Mind: Imagery,
Introspection, and Some Implications." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 15 (1994): 520-48. David Estes clearly states that contrary to Piaget's theory young children have the ability to distinguish between the mind and the outside world. According to Estes children are aware of their own thoughts and are fully capable of differentiating mental states and external states. These theories can be critical in how school programs are developed in early childhood education. If a program is aware of a child's capability they will be prone to implement activities that increase the child's imagination. Estes disagrees with Piaget's theory that implies: "Because young children do not make a sharp distinction between themselves and the external world, they are not aware of their own thought as being subjective and internal" (531). Both Estes and Piaget have contradicting views nevertheless both theories will greatly
Flora, Stephen Ray. The Power of Reinforcement. New York: State U of New York P,
2004. In this book Flora argues the importance of reinforcement. Flora disagrees with the idea that: "because people can learn by observation when reinforcement is supposedly not operating, reinforcement is unnecessary…" (106). From childhood one learns of reinforcement by imitation and is more likely not to follow a model that is not reinforced. These instances can be related to school scenarios where misbehaved children are punished resulting in less negative reactions from other children. Negative reinforcement is also used to give clear consequences for not following instructions. In a classroom a teacher could say, "Do your homework or else." This gives the child an option to make a conscious decision to complete the assignment or endure the results. Flora states: "instruction following avoids aversive consequences and escapes the threat of aversive consequences" (111). This book would be useful to instructors who wish to see behavior increase while applying negative reinforcement in the classroom.
Fecser, Frank A. "Positive Education Program's Day Treatment Center's."
Reclaiming Children and Youth 12.2 (2003): 108 -12. The Positive Education Program (PEP) is designed to assist children with emotional and Behavioral disorders through a series of treatments. They are located in Cleveland, Ohio and serve more than 700 students and work with not only the child but also involve the whole family to help build a life that is more stable. The PEP helps build healthy habits with the child's life. This article suggests that maintaining a routine reduces the chances of confusion and uncertainty within the troubled child. The treatments are created in a classroom setting so that positive feedback can be received and at the end of the day each student shares one positive comment about themselves. Teachers can incorporate many of these ideals to their own classrooms which encourage interaction with a positive response and builds the child's confidence. These positive education programs are effective and provide troubled youth another alternative to recovery.
Harrison, Janet S., and Philip L. Gunter. "Teacher Instructional Language and
Negative Reinforcement: A Conceptual Framework for Working with Students Emotional and Behavioral Disorders." Education and Treatment of Children 19.2 (1996). EBSCO. Oklahoma State University Library. Article 07488491. 8 Oct. 2004 <http://web3.epnet.com>. This article presents a teaching concept where teachers are encouraged to use language that controls irregular behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders ( EBD). This article encourages the use of negative reinforcement to reevaluate past teaching patterns that have poorly affected students. Many times teachers look to improve issues within the child when simple steps can be taken to help assess their own teaching methods. Instructors can ultimately eliminate disruptive behavior by giving instructions that the child can understand. The article states that a child with EBD will escape and avoid teachers when the instructions given are not at their level. It is first recommended to have both the child and teacher assessed. Next intervention is key and reduces irregular behavior and effective instructions are given in the classroom. The teacher should continue self-evaluations and through these processes Harrison suggests that negative reinforcement and effective language will improve a child with EBD immensely.
Pearson, Robert W., and Lawrence W. Sherman. The Annals of: The American
Academy of Political and Social Science. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2004. Due to an alarming growth rate of juvenile crime in the 1950s service providers have found it imperative to develop positive youth development programs. These programs are designed to enhance the characteristics of the youth in a way that will greatly improve their lives. A child's social, emotional behavioral and cognitive developments are all critical targets in the process of positive development. Children who go through these programs have a better self esteem and respond to the world around them in a more positive manner. For example, forming a bond with an adult builds the child internally and gives him or her confidence to create more healthy social connections. Positive childhood development creates a generation of youth that are more socially competent. This article may be very useful to future program directors that are looking for successful childhood development programs.
Roser, Robert W. "To Cultivate the Positive…Introduction to the Special Issue on
Schooling and Mental Health Issues." Journal of Psychology 39.2 (2001): 99 -110. Researchers are exploring the connections between class courses and social outcomes that cause distress during childhood and adolescence. By studying these critical emotional effects on children schools will be able to make improvements in programs that will seek to advance the practice of teaching and learning. This journal raises the point that, "Most children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe emotional-behavioral problems never receive treatment for them either within or outside the schools (Roeser 100). Improvements on a child's academic and social-emotional development can be made by creating programs that provide children them with a supportive educational environment. A positive school environment may also serve as a protective factor for those students who are at greater risk for internalizing problems and stress. This journal can help programmers design teaching methods that can effectively improve the educational environment for childhood and adolescence.
Sutherland, Kevin S. "Promoting Positive Interactions between Teachers and Students
With Emotional /Behavioral Disorders." Preventing School Failure 44.3 (2000): 1 -7. This article looks at the effect praise has on classroom and social outcomes concerning children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD). Several experiments were taken and results showed that a child's math and reading skills increased when praised by a teacher. This shows that the use of teacher praise has a positive effect on academic and behavioral outcomes. Studies showed, "that for more than 20% of the observed time, teachers and students were involved in negative interactions; positive interactions accounted for less than 5% of the observation time" (Sutherland 3). These results prove that the use of praise in the classroom needs to increase. It is also stressed in this article that if poor academic and social skills are not extinguished at a young age then the child with EDB will grow up with the same poor habits. A child who interacts in a positive manner with his or her peers will be more likely to acquire constructive social behaviors. Knowing the effects of praising a child can help teachers keep a positive outlook on daily classroom activities.
VaValore, Thomas, and Kenneth Siemen. "Alternatives to Punishment: Words and Ice."
Reclaiming children and youth 12.2 (2003): 93-97. Programs help troubled youth receive different treatment especially in the areas of punishment, expedient control and rejection. The Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a program that looks at the patterns of misbehaved youth and then tries to communicate with them in a way that they will comprehend. Many pressures create a life of doubt in these kids minds such as social acceptance, personal identity issues, and certain expectations put on them by either their peers or parents. By taking a more direct approach to the troubled children LSCI hope to come through to them in a way that does not deter the child from what the programmers are trying to accomplish. After reading this article one can get a good idea of how The Life Space Crisis Intervention is working to improve the future of mentally unstable children.
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