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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Annotated Bibliography
Jessica Lewis
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Anderson, Johan Hviid, et al. "Computer Use and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A 1-Year Follow-up Study." JAMA 289.22 (2003): 2963-969. Typing and mouse use are thought to contribute to the development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, eight Danish doctors concluded, after their study, that there is no correlation between CTS and computer use. They believe this is because CTS is caused by compression or stretching of the nerves but not by repetitive motion. Their study tried to find a relationship between repetitive motion and CTS but found none. This study is done by professionals with master and doctoral degrees, so the authors are reliable. The authors realize that their results are different from other studies and note this and reasons why this might be so. Specific data is also given to show the results of the tests given making the source vry detailed. Also all data and ideas not taken from their study are cited.

Bracker, Mark D., and Lee P. Ralph. "The Numb Arm and Hand." American Family Physician 51.1 (1995): 103-16. An evaluation of nerve entrapment shows that diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypothyroidism can cause nerve entrapment. The most common form of nerve entrapment is carpal tunnel syndrome. It can be caused by diabetes mellitus, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Carpal tunnel syndrome is not caused by computers but rather by lifestyle and disease. Both authors have a doctorate showing that they are reliable. This article is a simple evaluation of nerve entrapment and is easy for the average person to understand. Although, it does not go into great detail about how conclusions were drawn it does give a works cited page.

Keir, Peter J., Joel M. Bach, and David Rempel. "Effects of Computer Mouse Design and Task on Carpal Tunnel Pressure." Ergonomics 42.10 (1999): 1350-360. People who use a mouse a lot while working at a computer are at an increased risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Move over, by testing mouse users this study discovered that there is more pressure on the carpal tunnel while the mouse is in motion as to when it is at rest. This study shows a direct correlation between mouse use and CTS. Background information, of the authors, is not known, so this makes the authors questionable. However, this study gives a lot of detail and evaluates itself showing the possible reasons why the information obtained might not be perfectly accurate. It also provides references for information that was not a result of the study itself in a works cited page.

Lalumandier, James A., and Scott D. McPhee. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hand Problems and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Dental Hygienists." The Journal of Dental Hygiene 75.2 (2001): 130-34. A study to find the prevalence of CTS among dental personnel and to identify the risk factors involved. Although this study examines dental hygienists some of the risk factors that are mentioned to cause CTS are associated with computers. The risk factors found include repetition, high force, awkward joint pressure, direct pressure, vibration, and prolonged constrained posture. Although there is no vibration associated with computer use the other risk factors are prevalent in computer use. This article is presented in an easy to read format. The authors are well-educated and experienced in the area of study. There is also a works cited page provided for all data used in the examination.

Macfarlane, Gary J. "Identification and Prevention of Work-related Carpal Tunnel Syndrome." The Lancet 357.9263 (2001): 1146-147. There is strong evidence to suggest that the work place plays a major role in the development of CTS. Since there is no standard for diagnosis of CTS at work various ways of diagnoses and risk are used to define it. The most prevalent risk factors at work are those associated with force and repetition and force and posture. Further, there is evidence to suggest that a person's psychological well being at work is associated with CTS. This article is a simple evaluation of other studies which are properly referenced at the bottom. The association the author has with the topic is not known so he is not reliable. One thing to be careful of is that the author could be portraying what he wants to instead of hard facts.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Fact Sheet. 1 Nov. 2002. 11 Oct. 2004 <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/pubs/carpal_tunnel.htm>. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is cause by a predisposed small carpal tunnel. However, other factors include injury, medical problems, work stress, and vibrations. There is limited data that proves that repetitive daily activities can cause carpal tunnel syndrome but they do cause repetitive motion disorders. This site is put out by a reliable source that focuses on neurological disorders. One problem is it that although is provides a lot of general information it does not provide detailed information. There is also no listed author. The site has been updated within the past few years so the information is fairly recent but there could have been new developments since the last update.

Pascarelli, Emil, and Deborah Quilter. Repetitive Strain Injury: A Computer User's Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. The factors that can contribute to Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI), a common form being CTS include both intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors are rooted to body structure, disease, and work habits. Extrinsic rooted to the work station. When assessing the risk for an RSI both of these factors must be considered. However, a person's typing style is the most prominent factor because a person with no other predisposed factors can develop an RSI. This book is very trustworthy because it is written by the director of Musical Medical Clinic at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It is also reliable because there is a complete list of references as well as resources. It is easy to read meaning it can be easily understood by the common person.

Sambyal, Aruna, and Brian H. Kleiner. "Developments Concerning Repetitive Stress Injuries." Management Research News 23 (2000): 71-3. The workplace has become familiar with the terms CTS and tendonitis. Corporate America has been dealing with many work related RSI and must find a way to deal with the problem because it is costing them a lot of money. Many actions have been taken in order to help workers but more needs to be done. This article is very biased. The authors are expressing their concern about corporate America being in trouble. However, it lists references for the data so that it can be checked. This article is a good source for data but the reader needs to be careful not to use the author's opinion as fact.

Singh, Gurmit, Boon-Huat Bay, George W.C. Yip, and Samuel Tay. "Lumbrical Muscle with an Additional Origin in the Forearm." ANZ J. Surg. 71 (2001): 301-02. The irregular placement of the lumbricals, muscles of the hand, can cause compression of the median nerve, leading to carpal tunnel syndrome. In studying the wrist and forearm of corpses it was concluded that irregular origins, invasion within the carpal tunnel, hypertrophy, and abnormal length of lumbricals can be causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. This source is strong because it provides and interesting way of finding reasons for CTS. However since the study is limited to Asian corpses it does not apply to a wide variety of cultures. This study might not be useful for other nationalities because diseases are more common in some nationalities than others. However, there data is clearly cited and can be checked. It is a reliable source even if it is not widely useful.

United States Department of Labor. Mine Safety and Health Administration. National Mine Health and Safety Academy. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Washington: SM 23, 1991 rev. 2003. The repetitive use of small hand tools is associated with CTS. This is most commonly found in the manufacturing sector of jobs. CTS is caused by the swelling of hand tendons without rest time which can be caused by: lack of lubrication, a previous injury or fracture, job stress, abuse of alcohol, overuse of the wrist, and problems in the nerve. Evidence does not suggest that CTS is rooted to computer use, but rather that it is strictly rooted to hands-on labor. This is a government document so it is trustworthy. However, the government may have made this for a specific industry and left out certain issues for other industries.

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