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Controversial Issues Associated with Biomedical Technology:
An Annotative Bibliography
Davina Peter
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Andorno, Roberto. "Biomedicine and International Human Rights Law: In Search of a Global Consensus." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80.12 (2002): 959-63. People in international organizations associated with bioethics respond to the new advancements of biomedical engineering by creating a law to protect human rights. There are many international organizations that are trying to create biomedical principles dealing with human rights. The biomedical principles include prevention of human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. The idea that of protecting humans is more valuable than money and scientific gain is argued. The germ-line intervention allows people to choose what genes their offspring would have. This intervention would create the idealistic view "good" and "bad" human traits. Human reproductive cloning research is done for the prospect of curing degenerative disease, but the ethical issue of destroying life is a concern. The ethics of the world closely relates to the ethics of America. This article is authentic because of the worldwide references the author used concerning this matter.

Bach, Julie S., ed. Biomedical Ethics: Opposing Viewpoints. St. Paul: Greenhaven Press, 1987. The book contains several opposing articles about biomedical technology ethics so that arguments from both sides of an issue can be addressed in one book. The article subjects include the following: genetic engineering, organ transplanting, reproductive technology, research on animals, and the health care system. These issues are organized in five different chapters. Each article written has an opposing article; therefore, allowing a reader to analyze the both sides of an ethical issue. Periodical bibliographies are given after each chapter of articles. The book provides bioethical organizations for a reader to contact if they have any more questions relating to the topic the organization is under. Glossary of terms and bibliography of book are also given to encourage understanding and research of the issues in the book.

Griffith, Linda G., and Alan J Grodzinsky. "Advances in Biomedical Engineering." JAMA 285.5 (2001): 556-61. Reprint. Biomedical Engineering has impacted medical practices dealing with diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation by providing precise and helpful technology. Technology developed by biomedical engineers help doctors diagnose their patients faster and more accurately. The innovations that improve diagnostic measures for doctors include MRIs and ultrasounds. Biomedical Engineering also developed therapeutic devices such as the cochlear implant, which helps a deaf person to hear sounds by sending electrical signals to auditory neurons in the brain. Rehabilitation for burn victims has improved with technology of cell and tissue engineering. Griffith and Grodzinsky explain that biomedical engineering now includes controversial studies of molecular and genetic research. The field of biomedical engineering has fused with molecular and genomic medicine, and therefore the biomedical engineering field is under scrutiny for unethical practices. Moreover, authors prove to be very knowledgeable of the subject with the many charts and tables that are used to guide the reader.

Gushee, David P. "Ethical Method in Christian Bioethics: Mapping the Terrain." The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity. 2003. 8 Oct. 2004 <http://www.cbhd.org/resources/bioethics/gushee_2003-08-05.htm>. Advancements in biotechnology have developed so quickly, that the Christian bioethicists did not have time to develop methodological approach of dealing with the controversial issues. Gushee clarifies how Christians should answer the question if a certain biotechnology is ethically right. Christians turn to the Bible for moral guidance on these issues, but Gushee also makes clear that the Bible does not specifically contain information about ethics in biotechnology. The author explicates how to view these biotechnology controversies in a theological way. Gushee makes a point to extend more attention to moral and ethical issues than how biotechnology enhances human life. According to Gushee's writing, a reader would assume that the author has a biased opinion of unethical human enhancing technology.

Hanford, Jack. Bioethics from a Faith Perspective Ethics in Health Care for the Twenty- First Century. New York: Haworth Press-Haworth Pastoral P., 2002. Since most people's moral position is influenced by their religion, then analyzing how their faith differs or correlates to controversial biomedical health care issues is important. The controversial issues include subjects like organ donation, managed health care, the Human Genome Project, and biomedical technology that expands a person natural life span. Hanford explains medical technology ethics specifically from a Christian standpoint, and that unethical scientific research should be controlled and limited by an ethic code. The history of ethics for medical technology evolved though time according to the innovation. The pastors and elderly perspectives are as well analyzed and included to provide justification to the author's opinion. The book contains many significant references for each chapter. The stance that Hanford endows with is one that is against unethical scientific research.

Hanson, Mark J. "Indulging Anxiety: Human Enhancement from a Protestant Perspective." Christian Bioethics 5.2 (1999): 121-38. The advancements in biomedical engineering have caused people of the Protestant faith to wonder if such innovations are morally right. The difference between maintaining and enhancing human life are analyzed to give the reader background information on controversial issues of biomedical engineering. Hanson rationalizes that the controversial innovations must be analyzed and not condemned. Hanson focuses on how Protestants become anxious with unethical biomedical technology. Hanson enlightens Christians with the moral issues on biomedical technology, and to retain anxiety and not fuel it. The article contains many citations and reference to the Bible, which shows author's thorough investigation on the issue. This article shows credibility with many references that the author refers to.

Juengst, Eric, and Michael Fossel. "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cells- Now and Forever, Cells without End." JAMA 284.24 (2000): 3180-184. Reprint. The biomedical community should deal with the morality and social policy of embryonic stem cell research by proving its significance for future medicine and to analyze the valid ethical issues. Juengst and Fossel first explicate the process of therapeutic cloning verses reproductive cloning. The moral issues surrounding the use of human embryos in biomedical research are derived from religious and social values. If a ban was placed on embryonic biomedical research, then it would be detrimental to the lives of patients with health issues like genetic disorders. The author wrote this article to prove the benefits of embryonic stem cell research and other biomedical research in helping improve human life. Further, the article is a scholarly journal and proves to be well researched article.

Kaji, Eugene H., and Jeffrey M. Leiden. "Gene and Stem Cell Therapies." JAMA 285.5 (2001): 545-50. Reprint. Gene and stem cell therapies could develop a way to treat genetic and acquired disorders. The authors explain in scholarly terms about what gene and stem cell therapies are. How gene and stem cell research is conducted is still under development. Because it is in the developmental stage, this research will be more of a future project. The research procedure must develop in a way that prevents irresponsible and unethical procedures. The public must understand these therapies in order to accept it. The authors believe that the research must be done in a scientific manner and to use animal stem cells instead of human stem cells as a solution to the ethical situations. The author puts careful thought out plans to resolve the ethical problems dealing with biomedical research.

Lanza, Robert P., et al. "The Ethical Validity of Using Nuclear Transfer in Human Transplantation." JAMA 284.24 (2000): 3175-179. The authors discuss ethical objections regarding therapeutic cloning, and CRNT which is cell replacement through nuclear transfer. Because some people have moral beliefs that human life begins at conception, this authors chose to respect their view and only wish to inform these people the facts of nuclear transfer in human transplantation. The authors discuss the two ethical objections, which are the following: life begins at conception, and embryos are created to be destroyed. The authors reply to the second objections with detail analysis of how the embryos if not researched on would die anyway. There are alternative forms of cloning that does not destroy reproductive embryos. The legal issues are address with much accuracy and references. The authors reflect favor towards the research of therapeutic cloning and CRNT, because of the medical benefits that arise. The scientific terminology and detail analysis that the author uses proves the knowledge of the author on this subject.

Shapiro, Harold T. "Reflections on the Interface of Bioethics, Public Policy, and Science." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9.3 (1999): 209-24. Shapiro explains the controversies of public policy about new biomedical science and how biomedical innovations affect the social, cultural, and historical events. New public policy is created as biomedical technology advances. He gives various examples to define how biomedical sciences affected peoples lives, and culture. The author gives examples of how science changed modern culture in history. The historical examples include Darwin, Freud, Marx, and Einstein. The public view changes as the biomedical technology becomes a part of everyday life. The author discusses how public policy has prevented science from going to far. The author shows well thought out theories of why biomedical technology is under such scrutiny in the present day.

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