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Childhood Obesity: An Annotated Bibliography
Shelly Smith
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Blasi, Mary Jane. "A Burger and Fries: The Increasing Dilemma of Childhood Obesity." Childhood Education 79.5 (2003): 321-22. Obesity is considered the number one health risk for children in the United States today, and it is now reaching epidemic proportions. The number of children overweight has doubled in the last 20-30 years. A child is considered obese if his or her body weight is more than normal for a particular age, gender and height. While genetics play a critical role, they alone cannot account for the huge increase in the obesity rate over the past few decades. Kids are eating too much and not exercising enough. Most experts agree that the excessive amount of television children watch is a significant aspect of the obesity epidemic. This article in easy for anyone to read, not just an expert in the matter.

Borra, Susan T., Lisa Kelly, Michael B. Shirreffs, Kerry Neville, Constance J. Geige. "Developing health messages: Qualitative studies with children, parents, and teachers help identify communications opportunities for healthful lifestyles and the preventions of obesity." Journal of The American Dietetic Association 103.6 (2003): 720-28. Childhood obesity is at an all time high in the United States. Further trying to better understand children's, parents' and teachers' attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors about preventing overweight children and explore ways to communicate overweight prevention messages was the goal of qualitative research conducted of three groups. Their findings suggested that parents and children should work together to meet their fitness goals. Moreover, children need direct but positive, not critical, motivation from their parents and teachers to help them meet their fitness goals. A parent who was looking for a positive way to introduce a fitness routine into their life and their child's life could benefit from this article.

Dietz, William H., et al. "Policy Tools for the Childhood Obesity Epidemic." The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20.3 (2002): 83-87. Senate Bill 680 written and introduced by MO Senator Mary Groves Bland, would create a Missouri Council on Obesity Prevention and Management, establish initiatives to help schools create healthy nutrition environments, and establish a resource data bank for information about obesity. Senator Bland instituted this bill in response to her observation that Missouri had failed in the fight against the growing obesity problem. Quality prevention and treatment will require both individual citizen and community-based effort. Promoting initial prevention, access to effective health care and policies to change the nutrition and physical activity atmosphere provides a socio-ecological approach to obesity. This article provides legitimate information in establishing a community-based organization to fight the obesity epidemic.

"Finally a Cure for Obesity." American Obesity Association 17 Sept. 2004. <http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/causes.shtml>. The American Obesity Association considers behaviors involving physical activity and nutrition are the cornerstone of preventing obesity in children and adolescents. The most significant links in providing that foundation are schools and families. The AOA revealed that parents understand the importance of regular physical education for their children yet underestimate the health risk of excess weight due to lack of exercise. Further improving school based obesity prevention programs that include increasing education classes would aid in the prevention of obesity. Moreover, the website cited a survey conducted in 1999 that showed 16 percent of high school students were overweight and nearly 10 percent were obese. According to the survey more male students were overweight than female and 43 percent of students reported that they were trying to lose weight. The article would provide legitimate information for someone seeking statistics and information on weight loss.

Golan, Moria, Scott Crow. "Parents Are Key Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Weight-related Problems." Nutrition Reviews. 62.1 (2004): 39-50. Declared in the article is the idea that parents play a crucial role in helping children to become well-adjusted adults; this includes minimizing problem behaviors and maximizing self-efficiency and emotional, personal and cognitive development. Children are getting larger because of the increased availability of inexpensive high calorie food and the decrease in numerous hours of daily vigorous physical activity. Parents are allowing this by not controlling what goes in and out of their child's mouth. This article would be good to review if one was looking for information about factors causing obesity and what parents should do to control their child's eating habits.

Landers, Susan J. "Kids, TV a Weighty Blend of Trouble." American Medical News 47.12 (2004): 29-30. Today, about 10% of 2-5 year olds and 15% of 6-10 year olds are overweight and the common complications resulting from too much TV, videos, and computer games are hypertension, type 2 diabetes, respiratory ailments, orthopedic problem and depression. The U.S. Surgeon General has identified the high incidence of childhood obesity as the greatest threat faced by public health today. Recommendations made by the surgeon general to prevent this disease and aide in it's cure are moderate physical activity most days of the week, family members exercising together in more exciting activities such as swimming or skating, less time spent in sedentary activities and no more than two hours of TV a day. The recommendations made by the surgeon general would be very helpful for families looking for suggestions to work out together and ideas on how stop this epidemic.

Ludwig, David S., and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Programming Obesity in Childhood." The Lancet 364.9430 (2004): 226-27. Since the beginning of television into children's lives it has become the main pastime of America's youth. More recently, the unfavorable effect of television viewing on physical health has been a more prominent discussion topic. Television viewing has been proposed to cause weight gain through three main effects: by displacing physical activity, depressing metabolic rate while watching TV, or by adverse effects on diet quality, either while watching television or at other times, primarily due to food advertisements. Parents must get back from television the responsibility for educating and entertaining their young children. This article gives another perspective on what causes childhood obesity besides the usual list of lack of exercise and poor diet.

Parizkova, Jana, and Andrew Hills. CHILHOOD OBESITY Prevention and Treatment. Ed. Ira Wolinsky and James F. Hickson, Jr. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased and the situation is emerging in much earlier stages of life than ever before. Genetic factors and environmental conditions play vital roles in the early stages of obesity but the situations vary in different countries. According to the authors, recent data from the United States suggests that obesity affects approximately 25 to 30% of children, with estimates differing slightly from study to study. Continuing assumptions that nutrition in the form of extra energy intake and a higher metabolic effectiveness in certain subjects predisposed to obesity are factors in the cause of obesity. Genetics can also predetermine the likelihood of being obese. Again, too much television and not enough physical activity is a reason for the weight gain. The article is very easy to understand if one is interested in medical research pertaining to childhood obesity.

Robinson, Thomas N., and Joel D. Killen. "Obesity Prevention for Children and Adolescents." Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in Youth. Ed. Thompson, J. Kevin, and Linda Smolak. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2001. 261-72. Obesity has become on of the most prominent world health problems. A number of school curriculum programs have attempted to influence children and adolescents' diet and activity patterns and eventually prevent obesity. Children in the United States get 20 to 40% of their total physical activity at school and many are only active during physical education classes. However, PE classes can average as few as 10 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week. Also, due too political, financial and education circumstances there have been limited opportunities of sufficient physical activity during PE classes in many schools. Involvement with preadolescents has the greatest potential to limit the wave from childhood adolescence into adulthood. This article provides sufficient information regarding the limited amount of physical activity in schools and the idea of informing adolescents of the effects of obesity.

Van Stavern, Tonia, and Darren Dale. "Childhood Obesity Problems and Solutions." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 75.7 (2004): 44-54. Both the school environment and the family environment are responsible for the rising incidence of childhood obesity. One reason for the increase in BMI was the unhealthy foods served to children in public schools and by their parents. The food consists of high calorie fast food and sugar loaded carbonated beverages in most schools. Also, the convenience of fast food is sometimes too easy for parents to pass up. Limited physical activity in schools and family life has led to increased obesity in children. Many physical education classes have been closed due to budget cuts, and parents are just too busy to play with their children. Also presented in the article are solutions to improve children's nutrition such as introducing new healthy, tasteful foods into diets and also by increasing physical activity. This article would be useful to someone looking for adequate measures to take to improve their child's health.

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