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NCAA Amateurism Law: Ethical or Injustice
Kyle Williams
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Baucom, Chris, and Christopher D. Lantz. "Faculty Attitudes toward Male Division II Student-Athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior 24.3 (2001): 265-76. This article was written concerning certain stereotypes of athletes in Division II schools. There have been many stereotypes concerning the student-athlete. One major stereotypical issue is that athletes that engage in revenue sports do not have the same academic standards as other athletes and the remainder of the student body. Because of this stereotype people have negative attitudes towards these particular students, which is the exact same as prejudices. "Prejudices against college student-athletes may be a consequence of the perceived incompatibility between the goals of big-time college athletic programs and the basic values of academic integrity and academic excellence in higher education" (266). This article is very informative and goes in depth about athletic stereotypes, a very controversial issue. It is aimed toward an adult audience.

Bloom, Jeremy. Mr. Jeremy Bloom. U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Testimony 14 Sept. 2004. 8 Oct. 2004 <http://www.house.gov/judiciary/bloom091404.htm>. This website was created and written by Jeremy Bloom, an Olympic snow skier and college football player at the University of Colorado. Presently, the NCAA has a ban on college athletes receiving money from endorsements, (clothes, commercials, shoes, etc.) Bloom, a student-athlete, was invited to represent the United States in the last Olympics. Most Olympic athletes pay the expenses of the trip, souvenirs, bills, etc. by endorsing different products. By NCAA law, if Bloom takes any money offered to him from any company he will become ineligible to play football for Colorado the following season. Therefore, Bloom was forced to represent his country at the Olympics paying for every expense out of his own college-sized wallet. The Colorado State of Appeals ruled against his case. This is a very rare piece because it was written from the athlete's point of view. Any age group can read this article.

Brown, Robert W. "An Estimate of the Rent Generated by a Premium College Football Player." Economic Inquiry 31.4 (1993): 671-84. This article deals with the difference in the type of scholarships college players receive (x amount of dollars for room and board, books, and expenses) and the amount of money each player costs that particular university (trips, clothing, etc.) Charts are used periodically throughout this article showing the comparison of money colleges and universities spend, television appearances, uniforms, etc, to the money they make, ticket sales, number of students enrolled, etc. This piece calculates the "marginal revenue product of a premium college football player" (673). There is sufficient data given to support various reasons that a college or universities football program has very much potential for generating big profits for the school. This article is very informative in the aspects of money produced by football programs throughout the country. It is directed toward an adult audience, but is very easily read.

Cheville, Julie. Minding the Body. What Student Athletes Know About Learning. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc, 2001. This book was written in response to the student-athlete's struggles between academics (the mind) and athletics (the body). In this book, she attempts to present some major struggles within the student-athlete using the women's basketball team she dealt with while being an academic tutor and coach. Within her writing she portrays different aspects of the student-athlete, one of which is pain. Moreover, she illustrates this through two sensational college basketball players that underwent serious knee injuries that halted their basketball careers. However, instead of sulking in their own self-pity, they stood behind their team and eventually made strong comebacks. She ties these players ability to overcome their injuries to a strong bond of unity within their teams. Teams that play, practice, and study together. This book is very well written and is directed toward an adult audience.

Czech, Daniel R., Kevin L. Burke, Barry A. Joyner, and Charles J. Hardy. "An Exploratory Investigation of Optimism, Pessimism and Sport Orientation Among NCAA Division I College Athletes." International Sports Journal 6.2 (2002): 136-45. This article was written regarding studies performed to investigate the connection between NCAA athletes and their response to their individual sport, whether it be optimistic or pessimistic. There are many different charts that help to visualize the differences between races, genders, team vs. individual goals, etc. Further, there are many surveys taken, one of the more informative and eye-opening studies was the survey to find the most win/loss oriented race. "When comparing white and black athletes on sport orientation and optimism/pessimism, results…showed that black athletes have significantly higher win orientation levels than whites" (138). Another analysis recorded found whether males or females were more competitive. This article was written due to an extensive study between how student-athletes react to competition. It is directed toward an adult audience.

Glader, Eugene A. Amateurism and Athletics. West Point: Leisure P, 1978. This book covers many issues concerning amateurism, which is simply the process by which NCAA law prohibits a college athlete of any sport to receive money or other possessions, other than scholarship money. NCAA rules that player can receive no more than $20,000 for his or her scholarships. Being a college athlete in the first half of the nineteenth century was not the same as being a college student-athlete today. Even as early as 1820's "competitors who had a special advantage because of the skill and strength developed in their occupation were declared ineligible for amateur competition" (17). Back then an athlete was just different from other people. Amateurism was a way for society to segregate people. This book was written to explain further explain amateurism and the effects it has had on sports in the nineteenth and twentieth century. It book can be read by any age group.

Gotwals, John K., John G. H. Dunn, and Heidi A. Wayment. "An Examination of Perfectionism and Self-Esteem in Intercollegiate Athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior 26.1 (2003): 17-38. This article was written regarding self-conceptualism of perfectionism and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes. In this piece, different data is projected concerning the perfectionism is student athletes. "…there are two types of perfectionism: neurotic…and normal perfectionism" (18). The information provided in this article proves that athletes with normal perfectionism goals are healthier and receive more self-satisfaction than those who suffer from neurotic perfectionism. A Collegiate athlete tends to be more critical on him or herself, than they are on their teammates. Athletes with a normal perfectionism perspective are satisfied with the outcome of their competition, even if they fell short of the intended goal. Neurotic perfectionism in athletes causes them to never be satisfied with the outcome because they are always worried that they could and should have done better. This article is somewhat lengthy, but shows good survey information. It is aimed at an adult audience.

Leddy, Matthew H., Michael J. Lambert, and Benjamin M. Ogles. "Psychological Consequences of Athletic Injury Among High-Level Competitors." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 65.4 (1994). ProQuest Direct. Oklahoma State University. 6 Oct. 2004 <http://80gateway.proquest.com/>. This article was written concerning the psychological conditions athletes face after going through an injury. Studies were taken from various colleges and universities regarding the number of athletes and the severity of each one's condition. Studies performed by Weiss and Troxel show that of ten cream of the crop athletes who had suffered a major injury experienced "fear, tension, fatigue, disbelief, depression, and somatic complaints (e.g. insomnia, loss of appetite, and upset stomach) (1-2). This article also indicates, through other numerous studies, injuries from the most common to the most seldom; such as neck, wrist, knee, and groin injuries. This article presents many studies and useful information; written directed towards an adult audience.

Macciocchi, Stephen N., Jeffrey T. Barth, Lauren Littlefield, and Robert C. Cantu. "Multiple Concussions and Neuropsychological Functioning in Collegiate Football Players." Journal of Athletic Training 36.3 (2001): 303-06. This article was written in response to a study done to find if a second concussion made other significant problems after the injury. There was a study that found concussions in Division I, II, and III football programs may be the source of neuropsychological issues. "In the initial study, 2300 players were prospectively examined and followed for 4 years to determine the neuropsychological consequences of concussive injuries" (304). This article consists of arguments and summaries, as well as a chart that portrays the differences in the time of season in which an injury occurs. It is well written article, but is a little hard to follow. It is directed toward a more mature, adult audience.

Mueller, Frederick O. "Catastrophic Head injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports." Journal of Athletic Training 36.3 (2001): 312-15. This article was written in order that football become a more fun and safe game, for the players as well as the fans. This article shows the number of head injuries that occur in high school and college athletics. Head injuries are the leading cause of fatalities in sports. Concussions are very popular in sports injuries, particularly in the sport of football. Studies found that "football players who sustained 1 concussion in a season were 3 times more likely to sustain a second concussion in the same season compared with uninjured players" (312). In this piece, substantial data is shown according to the body part injured (head, neck, etc.) and the level of play (high school, college, etc.) This article is short, but contains very useful data. It is aimed toward an adult audience.

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