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The Medias Effect on Violent Behavior in Society:
An Annotated Bibliography
Mindy Thayer
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Anderson, Craig A., and Brad J. Bushman. "The Effects of Media Violence on Society." Science 295.5564 (2002): 2577, 2579. Many scientific researchers have come to the conclusion that the media has an effect on adolescents and young adults. TV viewing is associated with subsequent aggressive behavior. People do not seem to understand that the media is contributing to a more violent society. There have been numerous studies done that have come to suggest that media violence exposure causes later aggressive acts. There has been a recent theory about human aggression that suggests two approaches to help reduce violent behavior. One states that there should be a reduce in exposure and the other involves changing children's attitudes toward violence. Many parents should read this article because it will help them become more aware of how media violence leads to societal violence.

Berkowitz, Leonard, Ronald Corwin, and Mark Hieronimus. "Film Violence and Subsequent Aggressive Tendencies." The Public Opinion Quarterly 27.2 (1963): 217-29. There have been many debates on the issue of media violence. Some people suggest that the media is causing aggressive behavior while others feel that violence in the media can help reduce an aggressive drive. While testing both of these theories conclusions have proved that the media violence can have both a positive and negative effect on an individual. One way that the media can have a positive effect is "when a villain is defeated aggressively - the consequences may be a weakening of restraints against hostility in angered audience members" (Berkowitz 229). This article should be read by individuals who both agree and disagree that media is causing violence because it gives examples on how media violence can effect individuals in different ways.

Berkowitz, Leonard. "Some Effects of Thoughts on Anti- and Prosocial Influences of Media Events: A Cognitive-Neoassociation Analysis." Psychological Bulletin 95.3 (1984): 410-27. People have suggested that media events have increased crime in society. One example of how the media has increased crime would the case of Jack the Ripper. After this case received National attention eight identical crimes took place in London. This shows that the media played a major role in helping these murders take place. The media can have both positive and negative influences on America. They can either promote desirable behavior or aggressive behavior, but "society has to decide whether the benefits of … aggression outweigh the cost" (Berkowitz 424). This article should be viewed by parents who have young kids so they can decide what kind of media to expose their children to.

Bryant, Jennings and Dolf Zillman. Media Effects Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994. Media violence is a major concern throughout the society. "The impact of media violence began when the entertainment industry became a major source of entertainment. Research methodologies are tackling questions such as, does crime in movies affect the moral standards in society. Some studies have suggested that motion pictures play a direct role in shaping criminal careers and increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior among viewers. Research, experiments, and surveys are being correlated to help determine if media exposure increases aggression. Many of these studies failed to support the hypothesis that the media is a cause of violent behavior. Researchers that feel media is a cause of violence should read this article because it will show them the procedures that failed to prove that this hypothesis was true. This article will allow researchers to save time and take different approaches to prove that the media does cause violent behavior.

Eron, Leonard D., L. Rowell Huesmann, Monroe M. Lefkowitz, and Leopold O. Walder. "Does Television Violence Cause Aggression?" American Psychologist 27.4 (1972): 253-63. There have been numerous questions asked to determine if television programs are teaching young children techniques of aggressive behavior. A hypothesis of research has suggested that violent television shows play a positive effect in violent behavior in society. Studies suggests that these violent behaviors acquire between the ages of eight and nine (critical period), but are not visible and effective until later on in life. Many parents with pre-teens should take this article into consideration, because although parents may feel their child is on the right track at this young age, violent television shows could effect and damage their futures.

Felson, Richard B. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22 (1996): 103-28. "Watching violence is a popular form of entertainment" (Felson 103). For example; "local news shows provide extensive coverage of violent crimes to help increase their ratings" (Felson 103). There have been numerous discussions that debate whether or not the media has an effect on aggressive behavior. Some feel that it seems unlikely that media violence causes higher crime rates, but it could be "reasonable to believe that the media directs viewers' attention to … forms of violent behavior [that] they [may] not [have] considered" (Felson 124). The media has different effects on different viewers. Younger children are more vulnerable to be influenced by television, but it is still unclear how the media affects viewers. Many scholarly writers that agree or disagree with media violence would be interested in this article because it gives numerous examples of how the media does and does not affect viewers.

Feshbach, Seymour and Robert D. Singer. Television and Aggression. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1971. The presentation of violence has always been a form of enjoyment for children and adults. Many arguments have been made about violence because some feel that it causes positive effects while others think it causes negative effects. One hypothesis that has been discussed it that television programs and movies teach children how to use guns, knives, and hurt someone. Another outlook that people have been researching is that children that see violence in the media are frightened because of the consequences that along with the crime. Many researches that are interested in the issue of violence in the media should take this article into consideration because it gives facts and statistics that show how the media is affecting children.

Freedman, Jonathan L. "Effect of Television Violence on Aggressiveness." Psychological Bulletin 96.2 (1984): 227-46. Many people are debating if television violence causes aggressiveness. Many psychologists have come to the conclusion that viewing violent films is increasing violent and aggressive behavior. Numerous amounts of laboratory work has been done to help deicide if these psychologist's theories are correct. Many of these test have problems in design, analysis, or interpretation of results. These tests are having mixed results and weak evidence to prove that television is the key factor of aggressiveness. Many psychologists that are researching if media is a cause of violence would be interested in this article because it shows that aggressiveness is not always related to violence in the media.

Pinon, Marites F., Aletha C. Huston, and John C. Wright. "Family Ecology and Child Characteristics That Predict Young Children's Educational Television Viewing." Child Development 60.4 (1989): 846-56. A child's behavior is based off the surroundings that it encounters. The family environment, the sociological context, and the nature of available programs all influence children in a variety of ways. Anderson and Bryant discuss how four types of variables play part in educating and persuading children. They studied the children's sociological characteristics, availability of programs, family characteristics, and individual child attributes. As they studied the four variables they came to the conclusion that these variables play a major role in helping to develop a child's mind educationally. This article was very informative and many parents should take this article into consideration. Its studies prove that some television shows can be a healthy diet for young children and can help increase their educational skills.

Yim, Jen. The Effects of Media Violence on Children. 20 Aug. 1999. 16 Feb. 2005 <http://www2.hawaii.edu/~yimjenni/media.htm>. Media is playing a major role in violence among children. Television and video games is a main contributor to violence among young children. Children can not distinguish the differences between reality and fantasy. One major television show, the World Wrestling Federation (WWF), is having negative effects on young children. This Television show is exposing children to violent, sexual, and vulgar behaviors. Video games also expose children to violence. Many parents are worried that their children may be vulnerable to learning aggressive behaviors through these violent video games. The government, entertainment industry, and parents need to take this article into consideration because it shows how entertainment can have a negative effect on children. It also gives parents clues and warning signs to help them realize that their children may be acting out because they are being exposed to too much violence through entertainment.

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