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Annotated Bibliography: A Brief Look at Online Privacy
Derek Wilson
Academic affiliation: Oklahoma State University
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Armstrong, H. L., P. J. Forde. "Internet Anonymity Practices in Computer Crime." Information Management & Computer Security 11.5 (2003): 209-15. Many people who advocate privacy call for anonymity on the internet. This article explores the dark side of the internet and the impact that anonymity has had on it. The internet is a host for all sorts of crime related activities. These activities, such as hacking, drug dealing and child pornography can be difficult to regulate. When criminals have access to software which makes them anonymous it can be impossible to track a suspect. This article raises the question that people who have access to software with anonymity abilities may be more prone to participate in illegal activities. In order to regulate illegal activities there must be a limit to anonymity on the internet.

Baird, Robert M., Reagan Ramsower, and Stuart E. Rosenbaum. Cyberethics: Social and Moral Issues in the Computer Age. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000. This book takes a thorough look at the effect that technology is having on the way people live their lives. After defining the moral landscape of the internet the book uses numerous articles to examine several key areas. These areas are privacy, anonymity, personal identity and creating online identities. The internet privacy and anonymity sections are especially interesting because they demonstrate harm that can be caused by complete anonymity and privacy on the internet. These harms stem from the inability to trace data back to a specific user or computer. This situation would allow for the propagation of online miscreants and make protection of computer more difficult. This book is unique because it takes an unorthodox look at privacy and problems it can cause.

Buchholz, Rogene A, and Sandra B Rosenthal. "Internet privacy: Individual rights and the common good." S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal 67.1 (2002): 34-40. This article argues that online information should be kept secret due to the right of privacy. The authors accomplish this by assigning privacy a broad meaning, which encompasses any information about oneself. They were careful to take into account the interconnectedness of modern society and try to determine where ones privacy ends and another's right to know begins (35). They conclude by discussing various ways that consumers can protect online anonymity and mention the governments increasing interest in forming laws for internet privacy. This articles use of the broad definition of privacy makes their goals of consumer rights unobtainable due to an unreasonable view of the right to privacy.

Charters, Darren. "Electronic Monitoring and Privacy Issues in Business-Marketing: The Ethics of the DoubleClick Experience." Journal of Business Ethics 35.4 (2002): 243-54. Charters explains the ethics of online monitoring through two ethical foundations and discusses how each is violated. The first foundation, Utilitarianism, states that internet monitoring for advertising is not a violation of privacy as long as there is more benefit than harm from the information. The second foundation, Kantianism, only finds internet monitoring acceptable on the basis that the user is aware and agrees to the conditions of the monitoring. Charter adopts the Kantianism foundation for his argument. Further explanation is given over the technical aspects of internet monitoring and how information is retrieved from users. This article proposes a unique idea that the invasion of privacy is not wrong if it does not impose a cost on a user, but ultimately feels violating privacy does impose a cost.

Cunningham, Patrick J. "Are cookies hazardous to your privacy." Information Management Journal 36.3 (2002): 52-54. Cunningham explains how websites are using a computer file known as a cookie. A cookie is a tiny file that is stored on a computer by a website. The placement of this file allows users to save important security and login data the re-entry of the information every time a new page is viewed can be eliminated. A cookie may also be used to monitor the behavior of online visitors, such as, time spent on a website, links clicked, and pages visited. An important question is raised about the process of using cookies to invade a person's privacy online, and how to detour an invasion. This article provides a detailed description of cookies and how they are used to monitor online activity.

Mascarenhas, Oswald A. J., Ram Kesavan, and Michael D Bernacchi. "Co-managing Online Privacy: A Call for Joint Ownership." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 20.7 (2003): 686-702. The information in this article suggests that many users entering the online world may be unknowingly studied by websites in an attempt to gain a better understanding of their customers. These studies are conducted through means, such as cookie histories and the analysis of personal information entered into websites. Going against the popular trend that privacy is a right; this article declares privacy is a privilege. The authors go on to argue that in many cases consumers may not claim that trails left by cookies or any other readily accessible online data their private property. The solution of co-ownership of online data is provided as a solution to end consumers' worry of being tracked and studied while online. By establishing a standpoint on privacy as a privilege, the authors give businesses the ability to ethically conduct online research.

Mena, Jesus. Data Mining your Website. Boston: Digital P, 1999. This book provides and insight into the process of data mining. All the steps involved in turning a normal website into one capable of capturing information about visitors are provided by the author. The data being collected is specifically targeted towards web masters of e-commerce web sites. Profiling tips and methods are given on organizing the information gathered from visitors. New algorithms to further refine the information gathered are also introduced to break away from traditional practices. The author in this book cites the numerous advantages in marketing analysis that company's can gain through the effective use of data mining. While this book is mostly a guide on data mining, tips and methods of data mining provide a look at the psyche of data miners.

Michelfelder, Diane P. "The Moral Value of Information Privacy in Cyberspace." Ethics and Information Technology 3.2 (2001): 129-35. Michelfelder's article uses a past court case to suggest that privacy is being violated. An important assumption in this article is that the Griswold v Connecticut decision actually defines the existence of informational privacy. Furthermore, the existence of this privacy of information is stretched to hold true for the protection of information available about a person on the internet. The largely inferred definition of privacy weakens the right to privacy argument, since it is not based on a solid foundation in law. Michelfelder feels an increase in the legislative power of privacy is the only way to curb the collection of data from internet users. This articles scope focuses on evaluating privacy law through the use of liberal interpretations of court rulings.

Rigby, Karina. "Anonymity on the Internet Must be Protected." 2005 <http://www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/6.805/student-papers/fall95-papers/rigby- anonymity.html>. This article takes into account pro's and con's for anonymity on the internet. Several examples of anonymity appearing in courts are viewed to show where the courts stand on the protection of online privacy. The author recognizes problems caused by anonymity but argues that protections it provides for free speech are far more important. Problems caused by anonymity could be adjusted by regulations on web sites or services that employ the use of anonymity. Anonymity must be regulated because as long as there is a desire for privacy on the internet it will exist. This article suggests that anonymity should not be stopped because it leads to a greater good internet users.

van Wel, Lita, and Lambčr Royakkers. "Ethical Issues in Web Data Mining." Ethics and Information Technology 6.2 (2004): 129-40. The process of data mining consists of a scouring of the internet to collect information about people through several different means. These methods are capable of gathering large amount of data in forms both directly linked to a specific individual and to anonymous users. Interestingly, the authors, in addition to attacking targeted tracking of specific individuals, argue against forms of web tracking where an individuals' identity is not known. The study of people without knowing their identity can be viewed as discrimination because it groups them by factors which may not be accurate. The authors' open-minded view on internet tracking condemns the advertising system as a whole, citing numerous ways that the consumer is harmed.

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